As if we didn’t love natural and pristine beauty, we realize that fruit trees and shrubs need special care. Their function in the garden – fruiting. And to do it they will be able to fully if the gardener will remember how important pruning fruit trees in autumn, winter and especially in spring. This procedure allows to correctly form the crown of a plant, every branch has a sufficient amount of light and air. With the help of pruning is a reorganization of the tree, protecting it from spreading numerous diseases to which it may be subjected. Pruning this procedure for different times of the year the main topic of the article.
And the Arsenal grower you must include suitable tools for pruning fruit trees and various shrubs. That’s what we need:
- Pruner. You should not choose a tool with ratchet mechanism that I have to press several times to make the cut. Secateurs should be normal and comfortable.
- Garden hacksaw. Saber is a tool with pointy end of a panel. In the teeth of a handsaw should be special spaces that do not allow sawdust to accumulate. No need to use hacksaw for the construction work. For pruning fruit trees need only a garden tool with a specific profile and angle of the canvas for ease of execution of works.
- Air pruner. It looks like this: on a long rod, possibly telescopic, fixed shears, powered with the aid of ropes and levers. Using this tool, you can conduct the pruning of those branches, which are another way to reach difficult.
It is important that the blades were clean and sharpened. Only using sharp tools it is possible to prevent the formation of lacerated wound surfaces, which nestles threat to trees of microorganisms. Upon completion, the cutting surfaces of the tool are thoroughly cleaned and wiped with an oily cloth.
Together with the tools for work should purchase a garden var. It is a kind of ointment made from petroleum and having plastic consistency at temperatures above zero. This product it is necessary to cover the wound on the surface of the wood, having a diameter of 1-2 cm, However, not under all weather conditions var is good to go on the wood. It can be oil paint, ie paint, based on linseed oil.
A quality tool is very important in order for the trimming procedure was the least painful for the plants. Use the building tool instead of a garden not
Enjoy Vara you can use oil paint based on linseed oil and yellow clay, mixed with cow manure
In the process of trimming apply different techniques of cut. The choice of a particular technique depends on the purpose of carrying out work.
With this kind of cropping is possible, for example, to change the direction of the growth of the branch and set it as we need. You need to take a year-old growth escape. It choose kidney growing in the right direction.
The right cut on the kidney should be approximately at an angle of 45 degrees to the branch. The right cut No. 1. In other cases, either left a big stump, or kidney «slaughtered», or the wrong angle of cut
The shears should be held so that the insert has been rotated to cut away, and to leave part. The slicer need to do at a small angle so that the kidney was not slaughtered, but hemp is formed. Mentally carried out from the base of the kidney, the normal should not fall on the cut.
If the slice is too sharp, the kidney does not receive the necessary nutrition and she will wither, and we need to she was alive and gave escape. A big left stump is also dry up, the kidney may not Wake up. Cut, leaving the stump can be used on shrubs.
With this type of pruning removes a branch that is growing incorrectly, for example, to the inside of the crown. It robs the tree of food, and from the point of view of fruiting tree completely useless. If the thickness of the branches, cut it with shears.
The correct slice is the last number 3. Cutting is necessary on the outer surface of the ring, then there will be a protruding stump, as in the first case or will happen «of desperately», as in the second
In the joints of the branches there is a kind of excrescence of the bark. This is the ring. The cut should be made on the outer edge of the ring.
This kind of cut is applied if you need to translate the course of growth from one branch to another. Unnecessary thread to be deleted. In relation to the leave the branch cut is as if it is continuing. So we side branch did the main. And when you slice the ring we that is the side branch and removed.
If the slice with the ring will be removed the side branch, in this case, that side remains below the growth continued in her direction
Making pruning a gardener can have different purposes. Accordingly distinguish between different types of trimming.
- Forming. The crown helps to create the necessary density and tree silhouette. Thanks to her well-formed skeletal part having resistance to stress. Forming pruning in February makes regrowth more intense, and in March-April, inhibits the process of growth.
- Regulatory. It is necessary to maintain the formed crown, helps to maintain good illumination of the branches, does not overload the skeletal part of the young shoots. This current crop in February-April and August-September.
- Anti-aging. Allows old tree to be updated, because it stimulates the growth of new branches. If annual shoot growth is 10-15cm, it is necessary to shorten the branches to awaken adventitious and dormant buds. This should be done in early autumn, late winter and spring.
- Recovery. This measure allows victims, for various reasons, the plants regain the ability for the development, flowering and fruiting.
- Sanitary. If the plants are dry, diseased, broken or diseased branches need to be removed. This can be done all year round but not cold days. After pruning diseased shoots need to disinfect the tool with alcohol.
Producing sanitary pruning, you should consider the size and age of the tree. Very intense work can lead to thickening of the crown.
With pruning can be achieved amazing results. For example, the trellis formed from the Apple trees that are cut for decorative purposes
The only limitation pruning fruit trees in winter: it is undesirable in the cold when the wood takes on a special fragility. The branches at such a time it is easy to damage, and heal them bad. If the temperature drops below 8 degrees Celsius, and the pruning should be deferred.
Pruning in winter has its advantages, because the leaves on the tree and crown with all its defects is clearly visible
The benefits of trimming in winter:
- trees, at rest, will experience less stress;
- slices work better and more accurate.
The complete lack of foliage allows more objective assessment of the crown condition, identify its shortcomings and to make a correct plan of work.
To shorten thick branches, I need a saw. To avoid injury of the branches by chipping the branches pre-rasp on the opposite side. Thin branches cut with shears.
Mass spring pruning of fruit trees, as many believe, can be produced only in the period when the SAP flow has not started yet. In fact, for spring pruning is necessary to choose a time when no SAP flow, but it is ready to begin here.
What does it do? To the wound in the tree faster was overgrown and gave him less trouble later, it is necessary that the tissue was in a state of readiness. The timing of pruning various fruit trees in the spring are different from each other. Thanks to this feature, you can schedule this procedure to do this before the SAP flow.
If, after cropping to cover a wound garden varom, yellow clay mixed with cow dung or oil paint, then 12-15 days after the start of SAP flow will grow kalyus. The procedure of trimming is necessary to make on a warm day when the air temperature will be -5 °C.
You can’t trim shrubs in the spring, which the spring bloom. This is especially true of plants, flower buds which are formed only on last year’s branches. Otherwise, you can deprive yourself of their wonderful spring flowering.
Autumn pruning of fruit trees is poorly tolerated by most of them. Cherry, pear or plum that are trimmed in the fall, you can just die. If not strictly necessary, this procedure is best postponed until spring.
The disastrous autumn crop may be, and for newly planted plants. If shortening has been an annual increase, you can freeze not only cut, but also a significant area around it, including cadmium and bark. In such circumstances, to talk about the successful overgrowing the wound is not necessary.
In the autumn should produce mainly sanitary pruning of trees, because there is no long winter that the plant is better to meet without unnecessary injuries
Tree, covered with wounds, is hardly a good winter. The buds left on the short branches planted in this year’s sapling may spring bad to open up. These caveats are particularly relevant for those who live in the middle lane. Autumn pruning is permissible when the air temperature is between -5°C and warmer.
However, all said not for sanitary pruning. If a tree has diseased branches, to remove them immediately. Cannot wait until the disease will cover the entire tree or several trees. Deleted when such pruning branches must burn.