When the happy owners of their own holidaysite for the first time come to their 5-10 acres, in most cases they will ugly picture. Overgrown with weeds and undergrowth of wild land with Christmas trees and Chvojka-Samoseiko first sight suggests that the work here Nemer. Without reclamation count on high yield useless, which is why gardeners the first thing taken for analysis of the composition of the soil land, acidity, humidity, and so forth. And depending on the problems identified conduct the necessary types of reclamation.
With melioratio Latin translates as "improvement". This word is still in the ancient world is the system of measures, which aim - to improve the quality and soil fertility to increase yields. Good land valued in all ages, so agronomists, scientists came up with different ways to empty unsuitable soils turn into an oasis of fertility. They summed water in dry places, eliminate waterlogging and excess salt, adjusted the composition of the soil, making different kinds of fertilizer. As a result, four areas of land reclamation has been developed, which are now used on garden plots, farms and so on.
Kulturtehnicheskie kind of Reclamation holds eachcottager at the initial stage of development of the site. To get out of a deserted wasteland of decent ground for stake beds and flower beds, should at least cut down old trees, uprooting stumps, cut off bumps and fill holes and clean the area from stones. By the way, the most effective ways of uprooting stumps can be found in a separate article entitled "stump extraction of trees." When land is cleared for the first plowing, analyze soil type. On clay soils heavy sanding is carried out, contributing between 10 and 20 cm of sand and wrapping it in the upper layers of the soil. This improves air and water regime of land, increases the soil warms up, removes the time in arid formation of crusts.
The opposite process is glinovanie. It is conducted on the lungs and poor sandy soils. Loam scatter a layer of up to 10 cm plowing. Clay helps trap moisture and enriches the soil with micronutrients that are lacking in the sand.
Depending on the soil type, prevailing in the country site, add sand, clay, humus, torfokroshku and other components that help improve aerial and ground gidropronitsaemost
If the plot was on peatlands, theto simultaneously make the clay and sand. Peatlands tend to freeze at great depths, and the introduction of clay-sand mixture makes the soil easier, accelerates thawing of the soil in the spring and allows the beds to plant for 10-12 days earlier than usual.
Each plant their water needs, butthe majority still does not tolerate excess or lack of moisture. Therefore, soil reclamation includes area such as hydraulic engineering. His task - with the help of a set of measures to establish normal soil moisture levels affecting crop yields. Depending on the location of the site (or lowland hill, close to the natural reservoir or hilly terrain ...), determine what works Irrigation and drainage are required at specific locations plot.
If cottagers "lucky" to get the land in the valley,where the soil does not dry for weeks after each rain, you have to create a drainage system. Otherwise, and the plants will wither, and the foundations of buildings will start to wash away during snowmelt or floods. Depending on the degree of waterlogging create open, a point or a closed, covering the entire site drainage system. For more information about the technology of laying drainage can be read in the article "water drainage system in the area."
If the site is located in a valley, the main problem is its high humidity of the soil, which helps to eliminate the closed drainage
If the soil is light and loosely holds moisture, as well ashot climates definitely think through the site irrigation system. In summer, during the growth of garden crops moisture is vital. Without it, plants can reset the color, reduce the degree of the formation of ovaries and fruits are wrinkled and small. Therefore, gardeners choose one of the types of irrigation, the most favorable in specific circumstances.
Thus, the surface irrigation method is used more oftenin large agricultural areas. Water is allowed on the soil surface through special ditches, furrows, bands, and sometimes used the complete flooding of areas.
Sprinkler irrigation - a common method of irrigationbackyard. Water enters the soil in the form of small drops of rain through sprinklers installed in the right places. The advantage of such irrigation is that the water flow is significantly lower than the surface irrigation. Thus it is not necessary to dig furrows special, and therefore, the soil used to the maximum. Moisture nourishes not only the roots, but also forms a pole overhead, scraping the leaves of plants from dust and accelerate the process of photosynthesis.
With irrigation area by sprinkling saturated with moisture not only roots, but also the entire aboveground part, which accelerates the process of photosynthesis
Sub-surface irrigation is the most time consuming wayincrease soil moisture. It requires laying of pipes around the perforated portion and connecting them to the pumps. Pressurized water is pumped through the pipes run, and gradually escape through the holes in the soil, thereby increasing its moisture content. A variety of subsurface irrigation is drip irrigation. However, today laying pipes according to this method can be carried out both in the ground and above it. With drip irrigation consumes a minimal amount of water, not "are fed" moisture weeds, and each plant receives exactly the "drinking" as he needs, not abundant doses and gradually.
In addition to drainage and irrigation in Irrigation and drainage activities may include the fight against landslides, mudflows, erosion and so on.
Perhaps the most popular type of reclamationSoil can be called the chemical, because every year brings some cottager fertilizer to improve soil structure and struggling with high acidity. Sour land - the problem is very common, because both rainfall and excess fertilizers, and crop rotation destroy the wrong PH-balance, reducing the yield and quality of the land. On how to deal with the acidity of the soil and improve its fertility, we have already mentioned (the article "Liming the soil in the garden" and "What does the fertility of the soil depends on"), so focus on other types of chemical reclamation work.
Adding lime to the soil, dolomite flour or wood ash helps to normalize the acidity of the soil and improve the development of the majority of garden crops
Excess salts, as excess acid,unfavorable for the plants. And if the Cottagers hit land with a so-called salt marshes - in some places in the area where the soil is concentrated a large number of natural salts, the first thing neutralize these areas.
According to the degree of soil salinity are different - from thebrackish to saline soils, but the struggle with a similar phenomenon on all lands being the same. The soil is washed to bring salt from the upper fertile layer. Per square meter consumes about 150 liters of water. It is clear that such a flood no culture survive, so washing is carried out in the pure land. Very efficient flushing in areas with a closed drainage. salts with excess water go into the pipe, and then - an off-site. So at the next plowing, land with depth is not too saline.
In cold climates to achieve a rapid warm-upthe soil in the spring to help heat reclamation work. Their goal - to raise the temperature of the surface and deep layers, so that during late frosts roots are protected from frost penetration through the soil. To do this, use different types of mulch, compost laid in the soil layers and pits, sealing light soils, etc..
Mulching trees near barrel circles helps to reduce the likelihood of freezing of roots in the harsh winters and keeps moisture in the soil healing
For more details about the various materials for mulching you can learn from the video:
A separate type of reclamation appliesland reclamation, ie their recovery. Often in the process of building cities, mining and so on. Part of surrounding land zashlakovyvaetsya processing waste, construction waste, waste rock dumps, and so on. Later, when the main operation ends, this place is lifeless desert that often is distributed under the garden plots. And souped owners have to deal with the restoration of fertility and natural landscape, urban services if not taken care of it yourself.
Restoring the normal balance of the soil and its topography on the spoiled lands - a process difficult. It requires the use of large equipment for debris removal, leveling the soil
Restoration work is best done after a complete analysis of the state of the land and the conclusion, which should give specialists irrigators and environmentalists.
As you can see, reclamation works - it is important tolink in maintaining soil fertility. And if the cottage acquire not only for leisure, but also for growing your own "vitamins", the first step is to prepare the soil, and then planted culture.