The soil is a living organism, which shouldconstantly bubbling life. And the more in it of bacteria, bugs, worms, the higher the quality, the better her grow horticultural culture. Landlords sometimes do not quite understand what the soil is considered to be healthy and fertile. They make a big share of chemical fertilizers, believing that improve the quality of the land. In fact, these only affect feeding on plants, but does not contribute to the restoration of soil fertility. And it happens that you make fertilizer and remain in the soil, not the plants assimilating because they drained the land has not been activated, not turned into a convenient form for absorption. Consider what it depends on soil fertility and how to improve it, if the country does not want to grow.
To the plants lived in the land of good in itIt must be moisture, oxygen, and many nutrients. In addition, the soil should be a good warm up and have a normal acidity. Only if all this will be in the land of life - a lot of beneficial microorganisms that help plants to feed quality. To the ground in the country met all the above requirements, it is necessary to work hard. So, let's begin…
Most often in the cottages across the land on which water or stagnant, or goes away through his fingers. Both plant - certain death.
If you're unlucky, and clay or sitelowest place, the water in the soil will be constantly. The only salvation for the lowlands - to conduct dehumidification. To this end, along the fence dripped three-meter wide strip of half a meter, a meter deep. Throughout the summer to throw all the debris and stones that are found in the garden, and when it will reach the level of topsoil (40 cm), then fill it with soil, removed from three meters. As soon as the first trench is buried, following her along the fence digging up a second. And so - until after the entire area. All work will take approximately the season, but you will get rid of excess moisture in the soil.
At the bottom of the trench is laid out any construction debris: broken bricks, stones, blocks of residues, and the top is filled with fertile soil in which to grow vegetables
You can also dig trenches and lay pipes, but in this case, think through where the entire display system. You may have to dig a swimming pool, so as not to drown neighbors.
If the clay land, the irrigation is not carried out,but only alter the composition of the ground, diluting it with sand, peat and humus. By itself, the clay is very useful, because it holds a lot of necessary items. But too much of it share of cements ground in times of drought, preventing the roots to breathe, and during the rainy season in the garden is a lake. After podsypku, it is necessary to repeatedly plow soil tillers, cultivator and then to porazbivat clumps into smaller particles and mix the ingredients.
The percentage of clay soil nutrients is very high, but because of the high density and humidity roots can not get a normal diet
If in the area is another problem - the sand, theto think, how to retain moisture rather than remove it. Completely change the composition of the land for the season is unlikely to succeed. It is a matter of time. It will help only timely watering. There are seasons when the weather itself is not weak waters. And then the crops will be excellent! To strengthen the soil, it is necessary to make humus, peat, clay and so on. It is very useful to the so-called "beet earth." If your city has sveklopunkt where the fall brought on the change of the farms beets, then together with root vegetables accumulate a lot of soil from the field and beet debris. If an agreement with the employees of this company and ship a pair of ground vehicles - your soil will be saved from dehydration. Anyway, this ground will have to do something with. So why not on your cottage ?!
After harvesting the beet and its handling is a lot of ground, got to the field, and it can be used to improve soil fertility
The second component that affects the development of plants, - oxygen. If it is not enough, if the soil is clogged, then the roots can not get a normal diet.
To get started, check "breathe" Is your bed. Simply pour a bucket of water on the ground and watch as it will be absorbed. If immediately began to appear air bubbles, it means that your ground is all right. If the water goes away without bubbles, then land the pores are clogged and need to be open.
Make it easy. In the autumn when digging the soil crush lumps and leave them hanging around the waves. During the winter the ground is deeply fed with oxygen and you get rid of many pests that these clumps vymerznut.
Pulling on the aerator feet, you will be able to improve the air flow in the flower beds, which are seated perennials and can not be digging
Useful tool - aerator (or punch). It was created to improve the ventilation on the lawns. Attached to the back of the metal rods pierce the top layer of soil and create a path for air penetration depth. So good tool to improve the aeration of flower beds that do not dig for the winter.
Adjust the temperature of the earth must doowners. The darker the color of the soil, the more it warms up. Not every culture loves the hot ground, so first determine what and where to grow, and then taking into account the weather beginning to regulate the thermal regime.
Straw zamulchirovat beds become colder remaining 2-3 degrees and safeguard the roots of plants from overheating and weeds
Increases the temperature:
- creation of crests;
- mulching with peat or black earth;
- vystilanija black nonwoven material with slits for seedlings;
- vypolka weeds.
- mulch of sawdust or straw;
- White non-woven fabric.
As the use of the land graduallybecomes acidic. A rare plant is able to get along in the acidic soil. Most people prefer a slightly acidic ground, the rate of which the acidity is 5.5. Therefore, the annual maintenance of the soil should be included liming.
First you need to determine how much landsour. The most convenient way to collect on a handful of soil from different places in the area and take a special laboratory. But if not, then the approximate acidity can be found via a straightforward operation: sort through piles of soil from several places, and the top portion of pour vinegar. If your heaps began to "boil" with the release of air bubbles - earth OK. If no reaction - acidic.
If you poured vinegar on the ground, and it began to appear bubbles, then the normal acidity of the soil
Why eliminate the acidification:
- Acidic soils long dry spring, and in the heat crust.
- They are not useful live bacteria.
- Acid binds phosphate fertilizers, not letting them be absorbed into the plants.
- Acid holds heavy metals in the soil.
To resolve acidification, it is necessary to buy a lime, extinguish it with water (50 kg - 2 buckets of water) to the ground and throw the autumn digging. Either make the spring, before plowing land.
If the package is written with lime "hydrated", then it can be directly applied to the soil, scattering evenly over the garden beds
You can sprinkle lime powder, but beforethat allow it to soak for about a week in the open air, to repay it due to air moisture. It's enough to cut the film package and leave it open to the street.
Roughly lime dose is 500 g for clay soil, 300 g - for sand. If the exact degree of acidification is not defined, it is better to make small doses of lime and watch the weeds. As soon as the beds disappeared plantain and horsetail - acidity became neutral.
If all of the above procedures performed -beneficial bacteria themselves will appear in your soil, because you created all conditions for their ease of life. And yet, check how they are active. To do this, dig a few plot points of the filter paper, and a month and a half, dig out and look at her condition.
- If it is almost rotted - life in the earth rages!
- If the "melted" only partially - hence, the activity of the average, and it is necessary to make organic fertilizer.
- If the sheet has remained virtually the whole - timecontribute nitrogen and organic fertilizers, as well as to rest the soil. You may have a couple of seasons of planting the same culture, thereby creating the basis for the growth of harmful microbes. They ruined a useful biomaterial.
It is necessary every year to change the composition of vegetables in the beds, so that the soil does not tire from a selection of cultural products.