As if we did not like the natural and pristinebeauty, we realize that the fruit trees and shrubs need special care. Their function in the garden - fruiting. And they will be able to execute it in full, if the grower is to remember the importance of pruning fruit trees in autumn, winter and especially in spring. This procedure allows to form the crown of the plant correctly, that each branch gets enough light and air. With the reorganization of crop produced wood, protecting it from the spread of many diseases, which it may be subjected. Pruning plants and features of this procedure for the different seasons of the year - the main subject of the article.
A gardener's arsenal is necessary to include the appropriate tools for pruning fruit trees and various shrubs. That's what we need:
- Pruner. Do not choose a tool with ratchet action, which will have to press several times to make the cut. Secateurs should be a conventional and comfortable.
- Garden hacksaw. This saber tool taperingcloth. In the teeth of a hacksaw it must be special spaces that do not allow to collect sawdust. No need to resort to using a handsaw for construction works. For pruning fruit trees must be taken exclusively garden tool with a specific profile and angle blades for the convenience of work.
- Air pruner. It looks like this: on a long rod, possibly telescopic, fixed pruner set in motion with the help of ropes and levers. Using this tool, it is possible to carry out pruning of those branches to which it is difficult to reach by other means.
It is important that the blades are clean and sharpsharpened. Only use sharp tools, you can prevent the formation of ragged wound surfaces, in which nestles threatening microorganisms trees. Upon completion, the cutting surface of the tool are thoroughly cleaned and wiped with an oily cloth.
Together with tools for workyou must purchase a garden var. This kind of ointment prepared on the basis of petroleum and having a plastic consistency at temperatures above zero. This product is necessary to cover up the wounds on the surface of the wood, having a diameter of 1-2 cm. However, in all weather conditions Var good lie down on the wood. Its role can perform oil paint, ie paint, created on the basis of varnish.
Quality is very important tool for trimming procedure was as painless as possible for plants. Use building tool instead of a garden can not be
Furthermore Vara garden can be used based on the oil paint and varnish yellow clay mixed with cow manure
In the process of pruning applied different techniques of cutting. The choice of technique depends on the purpose of the work.
With this type of cutter can be, for example,change the direction of growth of branches and set it the way we need to. To do this, you need to take a yearling growth to escape. It select the bud growing in the right direction.
Correct cut on the kidney to be at an angle of 45 degrees to the branch. True to cut number 1. In other cases, either by a large tree stump or bud "slaughtered" or an incorrect cutting angle
Secateurs should be kept so that the cuttingthe plate was turned not to cut, but to leave a part of. The cut should be done at a slight angle so that the kidney was not slaughtered, but also hemp on it was not formed. Mentally drawn from the kidney foundation perpendicular shall not be exposed to shear.
If the cut is too sharp, the kidney does not getShe needs food and wither, and we need it to be alive and gave escape. Big left stump dries too, with the kidney can not be awakened. Slice leaving hemp can be used in the bushes.
This whole branch is removed as cropping,which is growing properly, for example, the inside of the crown. It takes away from the power of the tree, but from the point of view of the fruiting tree is absolutely useless. If you allow the thickness of the branches, then it can be cut shears.
Faithful is the last cut №3. Cutting necessary on the outer surface of the ring, then there will be no bulging hemp, as in the first case or may not occur "gouge" as in the second
At the junctions of the branches are peculiar nodules of the cortex. This is the ring. The cut should be made along the outer edge of the ring.
This type of cut is used when you want to transferthe course of growth from one branch to another. Delete unneeded branches. With respect to the retained, the branch will be cut, as it were an extension of her. So we have made a major side branch. But when we cut to the ring is removed and the side branch.
If the cut is subject to a side branch on the removal of the ring, in which case it remains lateral to continued growth in its direction
Doing pruning gardener may have different objectives. Accordingly, there are different types and pruning.
- Formative. It helps to create the necessary crown densitytree silhouette. Thanks to her well-formed skeletal portion acquires resistance to stress. Forming pruning in February makes regrowth more intense, and in March-April, inhibits the growth process.
- Control. It is necessary to save the generatedcrown, helps maintain good illumination branches prevents overloading the skeletal portion of young shoots. Such pruning is relevant in February-April and August-September.
- Rejuvenating. It allows you to update an old tree asIt stimulates the growth of new branches. If the annual growth rate of 10-15 cm of shoots, branches should be shortened to awaken dormant and adventitious buds. This should be done in early autumn, late winter and spring.
- Restorative. This measure allows the victims to various reasons the plants return the possibility of development, flowering and fruiting.
- Sanitary. If there are dry, patients on the plant,broken or diseased branches, they must be removed. This can be done year-round, but not in the cold days. After trimming shoots patients should be disinfected with alcohol tool.
Making the sanitary pruning is necessary to consider the size and age of the tree. Very intensive work can lead to thickening of the crown.
Amazing results can be achieved by pruning. For example, this trellis formed of apple trees are cut for decorative purposes
The only limit pruning fruittrees in winter: it is not desirable in cold weather, when the wood gets special fragility. The branches at such a time is easy to damage, and they heal poorly. If the temperature drops below 8 degrees Celsius, work pruning should be delayed.
Pruning in winter has its advantages, as the leaves on the tree there and Crown with all its defects is clearly visible
Benefits of pruning in the winter:
- trees that are at rest, experienced less stress;
- slices obtained better and more accurately.
The complete absence of foliage allows you to objectively assess the state of the crown, identify its shortcomings and make the right plan of work.
To shorten the thick branches, you need a saw. In order to prevent injury of branches by scoring, pre-sawed branches on the opposite side. Thin branches are cut shears.
Mass Spring pruning of fruit trees asmany believe, can only be done at a time when the sap flow has not started. In fact, for spring pruning is necessary to choose a time when there is no sap flow, but it is ready to start is about.
What is it for? To wound the tree quickly grow and give him less of a hassle then you need to cloth we were ready. Terms of pruning different fruit trees in the spring of different from each other. With this feature, you can plan the procedure in time to before the sap flow.
If you cover up the wound after cutting garden pitch,yellow clay mixed with cow dung or oil paint, then after 12-15 days after the start of sap flow narastёt kalyus. The procedure of cutting must be carried out on a warm day, when the air temperature will be -5 ° C.
You can not cut the bushes in the spring, whichIt will spring bloom. This is especially true of plants, flower buds which are formed only in the last year's branches. Otherwise, you can deprive yourself of a wonderful spring flowering.
Autumn pruning fruit trees is badtolerated by most of them. Cherries, pears and plums, which are cut in autumn, may simply be lost. If there is no especial need, this procedure is better to postpone until the spring.
Wicked Autumn pruning may be fornewly planted plants. If shortening cast one-year increase, it may freeze slightly, not only the cut, but also a large area around it, including cadmium and bark. talk about the prosperous overgrown wound is not necessary in these circumstances.
In the autumn should be made primarily sanitary pruning, because the long winter ahead, which the plant is better to meet without further injury
Tree covered with sores, hardly goodperezimuet. The kidneys, the remaining on short branches planted in the seedling year may reveal bad spring. These warnings are especially important for those who live in the middle lane. Autumn pruning is allowed to do with an air temperature of -5 ° C and warmer.
However, all the above does not apply to healthtrimming. If the tree is diseased branches, remove them immediately need. We can not wait until the disease will cover the whole tree or several trees. Remote with such pruning branches will certainly need to burn.