Standard six acres, which in the recentpast were a country station for most gardeners in our country, it is difficult to fill different fruit plants so as not to have to infringe on his own imagination. Very little space. Given the fact that some buildings will be posted on the site, it is quite sad. It turns out that the way out situation may be grafting fruit trees. Having developed some skill in the proper implementation of this simple operation, you can decorate your garden with apple or pear trees, the branches of which will grow the fruit of different varieties. With the best ways we have vaccinated now and introduce fruit trees.
First is familiar with the basic concepts that will be used when we are talking about vaccination technology:
- Rootstock. It is called the plant, to which we will impart a new variety. Generally, inoculation is made in the lower part of the plant. This may be a trunk (bole) or root.
- Pref. This is the part of high-quality plants to be grafted onto rootstock. Pref will form the upper part of the plant, which is responsible for its high-quality features.
Rootstock and scion should approach each other. Otherwise healing can not occur. Usually pick plants that are in the botanical relationship. It is impossible to instill birch pear. For it is suitable timber pear or quince, if you think about the creation of dwarf varieties. However, pears, which grow apples, are very common in certain branches.
This plant compatibility table below will help you to quickly find which of rootstocks can be grafted plants using plant-grafts
For vaccination is important to choose the right time. Active movement of juice in the plant helps to quickly settle down vaccinated, so the spring or summer - the best time for such work.
There are the following ways of grafting fruit trees, is actively used in horticulture:
- budding bud (eye);
- with the help of the cutting.
As a rule, for budding selected and summer and spring periods, and to work with the best handle is considered still spring.
When budding graft is a kidney-quality plants. From that stage at which it is awakening depends optimal time of budding.
Result budding bud (eye) is not visible in this photo: spring, this bud will become active, and the new branch will have all the features of the grafted varieties
For the best time of awakening budsIt is considered the beginning of sap flow - spring. By the very rootstock is also subject to strict requirements: the plant must be flexible and soft bark. When using the sleeping kidneys best time of the work is considered to be the second half of the summer.
Preparation of rootstock for grafting
Around the plant rootstock must be about two weekswell loosen the soil and release it from the weeds. Water the tree if necessary. You do not need to be vaccinated on the south side of the stem of the plant, because the kidney can dry out under the influence of the sun, and not having time to really settle down.
The order of work
With cutting remove the kidney. For this to work we need a sharp knife. Poor sharpened tools can damage the inoculum and bring it into complete disrepair. Together with the kidney cut off a guard - a small area of the cortex. Wood while trying to capture as little as possible. If work is carried out in the summer, is on the kidney and below 1.5-2 cm incision is made, after which it is cut from left to right. If it happens in the spring, the bottom cover makes sense to do long by 1-1.5 cm.
There is nothing supernatural in the implementation of this work there; over time, you gain the skills you will perform it practically on the machine
Prepare a stock, for which an incision on itbark and partly it is detachable. In the spring to make it very easy. The incision should be prepared in the form of the letter "T". Is folded corners and get a pocket which size should match with the scion. If the guard proved too big, clipped him. The bud is inserted into a pocket formed precise movement from top to bottom. We do it gently, holding the scion of the top honor guard. We fix the position of the kidney strapping of the film.
If the budding of fruit trees was carried out inspring, then after 15 days the kidney should germinate. This fact will witness a positive result of the work done. Remove the harness by carefully cutting it across the coils. In the case of the summer budding buds sprouting have to wait until next spring.
Grafting cuttings fruit trees used in cases where:
- budding did not produce the desired result;
- Tree damaged, but you are going to save it;
- We need to replace one plant variety to another;
- Crohn's trees are well developed only from one side and the other party need new branches.
When using the cutting work is also carried out in different ways: in splitting, kopulirovkoy in polurasschep, the bark, in the side section, etc ..
Simple and improved kopulirovka
For grafting of fruit trees in this waycuttings and rootstock selected branches of the same thickness. In simple kopulirovke on the branch of the stock and the handle make oblique slices of approximately 3 cm. Impose section of the cutting shear of the stock and place their joints fix the film or tape. The upper part of the cut lubricate garden pitch. This work is carried out in early spring, as a result of it we can talk through 2-2.5 months, when there will be fusion of rootstock with the scion.
The figure is perfectly visible than a simple kopulirovka differs from improved: in the latter case a large area of contact will allow the plants to grow together more actively
For improved kopulirovki create additionalsurface for splicing plants. In this slice both the plants do not smooth, but in the form of lightning. This forms a kind of zigzag lock when connected, which provides better docking.
The circuit diagram, but the picture is always better conveys the specifics of the work. Well, make sure that there is nothing complicated about it there
Using the side of the section
On the side surface of the rootstock is cut indepth so that the opposite side was about 3 cm. cut into 4-5 cm length. The bottom part of the cutting makes the cut so as to form a wedge dihedral. Insert the wedge into the cleft on the rootstock. His broad side must coincide with the outer surface of the branches. Firmly fix the position of the cutting.
When grafted to the side section is part of the scion rootstock kind of wedge, and it is important that the surface of the cortex coincided with bark branch; In this position, you need to fix them
When a stock is much thicker
When a thick rootstock used for grafting the bark. At the bottom of the cutting section make an angle of 30 degrees. The bark on the rootstock is cut and then inserted into the formed pocket cutting. However, the crust is just what can not be cut. To do this, carefully bandage rootstock to the crust does not break during the work. Then carefully separate the bark from the trunk. It is better to apply kopulirovochny knife, which has for this purpose a special bone. In the pocket of a cutting put, we fix film vaccination, and its place lubricate garden pitch.
When grafting the bark surface crust can nadsech, but you can just pull slowly, strengthening its previously well, not to tear
Create a new Class
For this purpose best pereprivivkialready mature fruit trees produced in splitting. From the alignment of the plant rootstock leave about 10-30 cm. All the skeletal branches he Cut down. At stumps Do the longitudinal slivers depth of approximately 5 cm. If a thick branch, then it can be placed even two cutting-graft. For fine threads fit polurasschep (not through). Cuttings are cut so as to form "shoulders" (direct ledges), they will draw on the surface of the stump. The splitting packed clay, and the top of the stalk and stump smeared garden pitch. Location vaccination record.
Vaccination in the splitting is most commonly used to create new varieties of plants, if the old with something did not suit the owner's garden
On this list of options to be completed. With the development of gardening, we learn of other opportunities.