Axe believe rightly the "king" carpentertool. This carpenter relating to his trade professionally, knows how to make an ax, perfect for an operation. The master, usually several axes, always ready to work. However, this tool is needed not only to the carpenters, but also ordinary people who live outside the city in private homes, as well as to citizens traveling in the summer or on weekends at the cottage. Chop wood to the stove to heat the house or in the bath, it is necessary for each host. To make this process go faster and do not cause trouble in the form of the flying ax, blunt blade or broken ax, it is necessary to know how to prepare the instrument for operation and maintain it in the "alert" during the entire period of operation. Form ax may be different. It is important that the right to impose an ax rasklinit and then hone the blade to the desired angle.
When buying an ax, or rather its part of the stitching,pay attention to the quality of the metal, taken for the manufacture of tools. Look at the ax mark GOST, which confirms the metal line with national standards and requirements. Be on your guard if, instead of the sign will stand specifications, OST or MRTU. In this case, the manufacturer may make changes to the technology. Axes of the Soviet era, are of high quality metal, can be purchased at a flea market.
The quality of metal and can be checked empirically,taking two ax and hit the blade of one of them on the edge of another. At least a qualitative product will notch after the attacks. Also, the metal quality is verified by the characteristic sound that is issued when tapped ax. This tool should be in limbo.
You should also focus on the following points:
- on the well-retracted the blade should not be bends and dents;
- tapered lugs;
- alignment lugs and blade of the ax;
- small thickness butt and perpendicular to the blade ends.
Do not be upset if you can not findax meets all the mentioned requirements. Because detected deviation can be eliminated by sharpening deburring, boring eyes and giving Obukhov symmetrical shape.
The length of the ax is selected on the basis of growth and strengthwizard. Not the last role is played here and the quality of wood. Lightweight axes, having a weight of about 800-1000 grams, have a handle length from 40 to 60 cm. In the heavy instrument (1000-1400 g) ax length varies from 55 to 65 cm.
From the length of the ax the force of impact depends. The longer the handle of the ax, the easier it is to prick wooden chocks. The strength and height is also important
Not every species of wood suitable formanufacturing ax handle. For this purpose, the real master is based on the entire forest before to find a suitable tree. Most often, the workpiece to ax made from the root of the birch, and the best of the growths on her trunk, characterized by special cross-grained and very dense wood. Instead, you can use the birch maple, oak, acacia, ash and other deciduous hardwoods. Preparations should be well dried in natural conditions, which will take a lot of time.
On the blank outline prepared byselected template contours of the future ax. At the end of the handle of the ax should be provided for thickening, designed for the "inhibition" hand in case of any slipping. Then the excess wood outside the circuit, removed with a knife, an ax with a perfectly sharpened blade, chisel or jigsaw, which is much faster. After completing the fitting nozzle ax ax by a mallet, and, making a snug fit of these parts, it is possible to continue further finishing tool handles. For sanding use glass, and grinding - fine-grained sandpaper.
Above drawing shows the ax (a) that meets the requirements of GOST 1400-73, and bottom - marching ax handle (b) with an area of undisturbed fibers of 40 mm
Important! If the ax is easily enters the eye, it means that the master made a mistake in calculations and the wrong draw a pattern. In this case, even to drive a wedge is not correct the situation, providing a brief tight fit ax ax.
The following is an algorithm of operations, showing how to implant an ax in the carved and polished ax. This is one of the possible ways:
- Fit the upper part of the ax under the eye of an ax. This extra plane down the wood with a knife. Files to use it is not necessary, since he "razmahryaet" tree.
- On the ax, placed horizontallyposition on the table, put on top of the ax, and put a pencil mark on the handle, to which he would sit down. Divide in half and place cut the second label.
- Pinch the ax handle in the vertical position in a vice, to the wide end was located at the top. Take the hacksaw and cut until the second mark under the wedge.
- Buy in-store or metal wedgeplaned wooden analog whose thickness should be 5 to 10 mm. The length of the wedge, made for an ax by the hands, should be equal to the depth of cut and width - the value of ax eyes.
- Put on the table board and put on her ax,placing it upside down. Put the ax to ax and start to tap them on the board. Then turn on the tap and the board ax handle, pushed on with the process continues. Inverting and tapping should be done several times. As a result, the ax will enter the eye.
- Next, put the ax upright and insert propyl planed wedge mallet hammer it up to half, or almost to the end. Hacksaw saw off all that remains stuck on top.
- Apply oil (engine, linseed, sunflower, etc.) On the ax handle, allow to drain surplus and leave to dry. Wipe the handle of an ax and a rag.
After fitting an ax to ax shown in the figure (a), make it the nozzle (b) and wedging the handle (c): 1 ax 2 - ax, 3 - Wedge
, It is necessary that the tool does not cause troubleproperly sharpen the blade of an ax. According to the requirements of GOST the angle of sharpening the ax construction should be 20-30 °. Tools for carpentry sharpen a slightly larger angle equal to 35 °. Recommended angles necessary to maintain as thinner blades are linked in the wood. To eject them will have to make additional efforts. On a branch thin blade can easily be bent. Sharpened at an angle of 35 ° blade podlamyvaya detachable from the main timber chips, not bogged down in the wood.
First the "roughing" the primary sharpeningax, during which it is possible to eliminate the rotating grinding wheel all shcherbinki, minor injuries and large potholes. This is a clear formation of a new cutting edge of the ax. Then, roughly sharpened blade is subjected to "finish" sharpening. Grinding is carried out along the entire length of the blade on both sides with fine bar, which removes any burrs.
Three ways of sharpening the blade of the ax: a) grinding wheel; b) bar, moistened with water; c) correction touchstone soaked lubricating oil
Important! Gloss blade of the ax and the absence of burrs on the cutting edge indicates that the sharpening process was successful.
In this video it shows how to sharpen an ax by a grinder. This is one of alternate ways.
After work is recommended on the blade of the axworn cover, made of thick leather, birch bark or other material. Do not leave an ax stuck in a log. This wizard takes care of his instrument, as an ax is a "continuation" of his hands.
Having tried at least once to chop firewood homemadeax, you can not work tool magazine. If you doubt their abilities, then use the services of artists who know how to make a comfortable ax to ax the selected workpiece and dried.