The word «well» causes a lot of associations. It is old and cracked «crane» in the middle of the village, and a breath of searing cold, clear water from the bucket on a hot day, and a beautiful house-mansion in the centre of a suburban area. Once upon a time the only farm the well was a meeting place: it was possible not only to stock up on water, but also to learn all the village news. Times change, wells became more – almost every yard dug their own water sources. They are widely used for water supply of the houses, watering gardens and orchards, sometimes clogged or shifted – which is why it requires timely repair of wells. This is what we are today and we say.
Quite often in the well just need to make a thorough cleaning of the walls and bottom so that the water was again clear and safe. The emergence of biological deposits on concrete or wooden walls – a natural process that occurs in stagnant areas. Debris falling through the upper hole, begins to decompose, forming pockets of bacteria. They, in turn, are deposited on the side walls in the form of a thick layer of mucus. Heavy particles fall to the bottom and accumulate there, forming a sludge and reducing the useful area.
Sometimes the cause of pollution damage to structure – rupture of sutures offset rings, wood rot. To eliminate the consequences of major breakdowns, cleaning and repair of wells are produced simultaneously.
The stages of purification of the well:
- pumping water using a pump;
- the removal of silt from the bottom;
- filter installation;
- cleaning the walls with special solutions.
If the bottom of the remains of dead animals, the well must be disinfected. The easiest and most accessible option – «treatment» chlorine. Pump water, pour a sufficient amount of chlorine solution, close the top with a thick cloth (such as canvas), leave for a day. Then chlorine water is pumped, fully wash well. For complete removal of traces of disinfection will be required several times to change the water until a specific smell, but it will be absolutely safe.
Before cleaning of the well is necessary to prepare devices for descent: a ladder support rod, the safety rope or straps, wooden platforms on the ropes
One of the traditional formulations for cleaning the walls of the well, the familiar solution of potassium permanganate. It needs to be a rich, dark color
For cleaning the well at the cottage can be purchased ready-made composition, for example, stabilizing the disinfectant solution of chlorine for pools Chemoclor
Under the comprehensive repair of the well implies a number of activities related to the sealing of seams, replacement parts, strengthening them. Also any dredging of the seabed. Some defects in the facilities easy to find when cleaning. Let us consider the cases in which the necessary emergency repairs.
If the cottage was an old well, do not hurry in its place to erect a new facility — perhaps only a small fix and it will again begin to function normally
A slight displacement of the concrete rings can be triggered by spring snowmelt, particularly when used in the construction of defective concrete. Between the rings appear significant cracks through which the inside of the structures penetrate the soil. Further, in addition to the permanent contamination can occur complete Assembly of the ring – and then require more serious repair.
To get rid of small damages, cracks and hollows, use a waterproof sealant. The most basic type putty – concrete solution, which is carefully coat all the cracks. It is necessary to clean the work surface, removing the crumbling material.
One of the options for sealing joints and cracks: fill with a solution Penali, treatment with Penetron with a brush, finish with Penetraton
Please note! There are many modern compositions for repair of wells with their hands. One of them is the solution to restore the concrete surface Fasi RM. It is applied like normal cement mortar, trowel or spatula. So 15 kg of the mixture is sufficient for high-quality processing per square meter of concrete, when applied in a layer thickness of about 20 mm.
Large cracks require intervention from the outside. In this case, dig a trench around the rings to the depth of the damage, treat the seam, let dry and buried back.
It happens that the ring is constantly shifted to the side – how to repair a concrete structure to increase their strength and to obtain the desired stability?
This requires serious intervention. The first step is to dig the well from all sides and disassemble the injury. You must then set the offset element into place and all joints strengthened with metal brackets, and then seal the seams and make the sealing of the Gidrolast or Penetron. If there are no professional sealant, you can use a mixture of cement and PVA glue. The joints should be treated from both sides.
Not all concrete rings have the holes for the brackets. In their absence it is necessary to use a drill and drill holes at a distance of 10-15 cm from the edge of the ring
To provide sustainability to the building will help the clay lock. It is done in the following way:
- Around the well digging a trench of 1.5-2 m deep and 1.5-1 m wide.
- All the free space filled with clay, compacted.
- The top layer is decorated (with turf, boards, sand).
Below the clay backfill could truly be considered «castle», it should be placed in layers of 10-15 cm and thoroughly compacted each layer
A powerful layer of clay serves as a barrier from exposure to surface water, as well as the mechanical fastening element for concrete rings.
To return to its former water level or even increasing it will help the only way is the deepening of the well. Depending on what the age of the structure, the following actions are taken:
- The well is relatively young — built not more than six months ago. In this case, it is sufficient to remove the soil from under the bottom ring to the whole structure slowly sank lower (as it was in the process of construction). When the design down to the final mark, top mounted additional rings.
- The well old. It «increasing» at the bottom, in depth, but with rings of smaller diameter (or thick plastic pipe). At the bottom of the pit dig a pit to the depth of a new aquifer and put it in the prepared rings. The connection of old and new elements carefully sealed box.
Before you start work on deepening the mine pit must make a repair to an existing design: it should not have offset rings and weaknesses
Over time, one or more wooden logs of the well rots and becomes unusable. To change the damaged beams of the upper segment, beyond repair, lift with a jerk, and at the end of the work is lowered into place.
Sometimes damaged logs are under water. In this case, to release the crowns and insert a new part, the water must be pumped out
Often on the status of the well can be measured by the water: clean, clear and odorless water suggests that the construction is in order
Rotten logs replaced with new, and sometimes used instead of wood and reinforced concrete: establish a grid of reinforcement mount formwork and pour concrete solution. The work is carried out with a specially prepared site, lowered into the well on a solid wire. If repairs wooden well not to engage in time the water will become cloudy and appear unpleasant, musty smell, and the design eventually will completely fall apart.
To eliminate the turbidity of the water at the bottom of the well placed rubble – this is the bottom filter. Silicon or other mineral has strong structure, therefore, does not dissolve in water and does not create sediment. A particularly useful filter, if the water from the well is fed by a pump. Particles of silt or sand can damage equipment, plus they clog up the water coming into the house.
Rocks, pebbles or gravel to the bottom of the filter device can often be found directly on the dacha: they remain after the building foundations, walkways and pools
The thickness of the layer of minerals should be at least 10 cm If the bottom has a movable or elastic structure, it is increased to 50 cm – in this case, even in the presence of silt, the water will remain transparent.
To damage the well design did not become an unpleasant surprise, about once every six months to do a routine inspection and regularly check the water quality.