The problem of strengthening the coastline is particularly concerned with those people whose properties are located close to water bodies that have natural or artificial origin. Beautiful views of the water increases the attractiveness of residential and commercial buildings, affecting their value. To longer enjoy the water element, it is necessary to conduct work on shore. Otherwise, the water, possessing great destructive force, can provoke a gradual subsidence in the coastal area and even lead to its partial collapse. Washed banks dangerous for people and property (movable and immovable), as the soil may at any time just «to leave from-under feet». These processes negatively affect the plants planted on a plot of landscape designers. Better to take care of strengthening the shores of the reservoir without waiting for the appearance of the alarming symptoms of incipient destruction of the coastal zone. If taking preventive actions in a timely manner failed, the process of destruction of the coast can be paused. There are several effective technologies that perform work on the protection at a high level.
To minimize the possibility of damage to the shoreline from the damaging effects of water allows capital protection. This group shore protection works can be attributed to the technology based on the use of gabions, geomat, piles, hydraulic grades of concrete, special volume reinforced concrete structures.
The called gabion mesh, made of galvanized wire double torsion that are in place are put into boxes that filled hand with natural stone. For secure attachment of individual structures to the ground using special anchors. Between the boxes are twisted wire. After partial filling of the gabion stone filling set so called «braces», which do not allow the opposite walls of the box «to disperse» in hand.
Banks of reservoirs, strengthened using gabion structures are not washed away and not gutter. For long years preserves the contour of the coast line can be defined when carrying out shore protection works. This technology, long used in Europe, have found applications in Russia. See gabion structures on ponds, rivers, bypass channels and other water bodies.
The coastline of the river neatly decorated using gabion structures with a strict geometric form. Natural stone located in the mesh boxes, in perfect harmony with the autumn forest
Sheet piles made of PVC and composite materials that allow in the shortest possible time to strengthen the coastline. This method of shore protection is considered to be low-budget. More than just a pile of PVC suitable for the arrangement of steep banks. One of the advantages of this material is the possibility of re-use. When mounting a separate sheet pilings are arranged in dense solid wall. Reliable connection of adjacent elements is provided by a longitudinal rib protrusion present on each sheet pile. Immersion, single or paired sheet piles made of PVC is carried out using Autonomous hydraulic equipment, are chosen taking into account soil conditions.
Schematic representation of the installation of the sheet piles, made of PVC materials which can strengthen the steep shore of an artificial or natural pond
The second group of materials used in Bank protection measures to include stone and wood piles. These natural materials can not only protect the shores of water bodies from erosion, but also give them aesthetic appeal.
As starting material for the manufacture of wooden piles used solid wood. Most often for these purposes is selected larch or oak. More preference is given to Eastern Siberian larch, capable of being in the water, to maintain their properties for half a century. The bluffs framed with sanded larch trunks, carefully selected according to the diameter, looks very impressive. Especially if near the water is a structure built of logs. Concrete fortifications, of course, lose the wooden piles, as the look is gray and dull. However, over time the wood can darken and worsen the decorative qualities of shore protection structures. The speed of darkening of the logs depends on the amount of organic matter in the water. When selecting wood, consider the climatic characteristics of the region.
Installation of wood piles may be carried out from the shore through the use of machinery or simple hand. Current models of dredgers allow you to set the wood pile on the side of the reservoir. Strengthen the banks of reservoirs using logs is impractical to spend on moving and loose terrains.
A neat row of logs larch emphasizes the beauty of the shore of the reservoir, preventing its deformation under the influence of destructive force of water. Strengthening the shore by wooden piles provides a safe approach to the water
Dumping the shoreline with natural stone of different sizes used on the gentle shores of great length. The magnitude of the angle of Bank should not exceed 20 degrees. In the presence of access roads for the transport of boulders or pebbles used vehicles. In remote places of the work carried out by hand. Before laying the stone is mandatory surface preparation Bank. If you neglect this stage, the stones will just sink in soils saturated with water. To avoid this, should be laid on strengthening the coastal zone a carrier substrate, which can be used a material such as geotextile, geogrid or Geocell.
Sloping Bank of the pond is reinforced surround geogrid, the cells of which are filled with fine gravel. The walls of the cells prevent the slide of rubble in the riverbed of the reservoir
The device of the stone castle in the construction of the coastline of the artificial decorative pond. Hard work on the laying of boulders runs bricklayers manually
A more time consuming way is the strengthening of the shoreline of the reservoir with the device «stone castle». This term in the language of professional masons are called dense stacking of boulders (stones whose diameter exceeds 10 cm). For each boulder, you select the place of installation, taking into account its shape and color. When large stones are carried by a master Mason manually. For the change professional is able to drag several tons of boulders. This method of shore protection involves heavy physical effort, but the result is not only to strengthen the shore line of the pond, but also give it a special, unique look.
The most labor-intensive and time-consuming is a method of shore protection based on bioengineering technologies. In this approach the shore to protect from erosion:
- beauty made from flax or coconut fibers;
- plants specially selected by experts for planting along the shoreline;
- wood and natural stone.
As plants are most often used willow trees (willow, black poplar, etc.) and shrubs (buckthorn, amorpha, physocarpus, etc.). Also suitable macrophytes, which include sedge, cattail, reeds, swamp iris, manna, sweet flag, rushes, and other species of flora, perfectly adjacent to the water. All plants should be strong, well-branched root system. Plants are selected taking into account their degree of resistance to flooding. The coastal area is laid the finished turf. This process is called Ternovka coastal slope.
Strengthening the banks of the artificial pond was built at the site of the former ravine undertaken through the planting and willow trees
Bio-engineered method of Bank stabilization is used on the reservoirs, the water flow velocity not exceeding 1 m/s.
When the device of an artificial pond on the plot of the work to strengthen the banks of the future construction is best carried out at the stage of development of the pit.
The installation of log piles produced at the stage of formation of the bowl of an artificial pond. After making the shoreline begin filling it with water
If you plan to implement major project, shore protection trusted by professional companies have special equipment and trained personnel. Natural reservoirs of the work is carried out at a convenient time for preventive purposes or in a short time when a threat of destruction of the coastline. Timely solution will allow you to save money and avoid catastrophic consequences for facilities constructed on the waterfront.