While attending the summer vegetable garden for the beds, eachof us certainly want to experience the results of their effort, gathering a rich harvest in the autumn. But as the old adage says: "Smart cultivated crop, and wise land." Therefore, to achieve the desired result and get a harvest with aromatic and juicy fruits, we should not forget about the rotation of vegetable crops in the cultivation beds. This effective system of natural gardening not only helps to maintain soil fertility, but also significantly reduce the number of pests and diseases affecting vegetable crops.
For the rapid development and growth of plantsmust be the predominance of certain macronutrients, because vegetables have a different ability to absorb these elements. For example: root crops (potatoes, carrots, beets) in large enough quantities needed phosphorus and leaf crops (cabbage, lettuce) - nitrogen. And if the roots thanks to a well-developed root system for food are able to use the lower layers of the soil, rich in potassium and phosphorus, the roots of leafy greens can get the necessary trace elements for the development of only the upper layers of the soil ...
The main task to be solved by rotation in the garden - a uniform distribution in the soil of nutrients
Landing on one type of vegetable crops designated area every year leads to a significant depletion of the soil and a noticeable deficiency of a particular element.
Only well-organized crop rotation on the farm allows balanced use of all the advantages of fertile soil
When growing vegetables, belonging to the samefamily, in the soil begin to accumulate pathogens and pests that affect it is a family. In the case of planting the same crop that grows this summer allocated a bed, there is always the probability of getting the fruit affected by disease. If the crop to alternate landing site each year, it is not finding suitable food pathogens simply die. Best option when the representatives of one of the family returned to the original place of landing no earlier than after 3-4 season.
In addition, the grouping of plants in the garden withtailored to their needs greatly facilitates the care of plantings. Thanks to well-thought-out crop rotation in the country you can even successfully contend with weeds. After all, experienced gardeners have long observed that culture gaining the little vegetative mass (parsley, carrots) are not able to resist the proliferation of weeds as plants with fast-growing sheet surface (pumpkin, squash, potatoes).
Scheme planting where horizontal rows indicate the year of planting (first, second ...), and vertical bars - on cropping areas
Due to the alternation of the beds, you can create the most favorable conditions for the growth and development of the vegetable beds
Over the years, the practice of many gardeners, givenespecially the development of the root system of plants, as well as the assimilation of nutrients from the soil, learn to optimally alternate in the garden vegetables. At the heart of the most simple crop rotation scheme is the principle that no annual crops should not grow for two seasons in a row in one place. More complex variants of crop rotation schemes include development on the optimal change in the plant within the same area for several years ahead.
In drawing up schemes specialists mainly guided by two parameters: the alternation of families and groups change crops (root, fruit, leaf group)
Successfully combined with large plants suchlike cabbage, zucchini and tomato, vegetables, small dimensions of culture: onions, carrots, radishes. As a stopover between the main harvest can be used ranosozrevayuschie Culture: Chinese cabbage, radishes, lettuce, spinach.
If in the preparation of crop rotation schemes to base plant compatibility, the best options may be considered:
- cabbage predecessors - tomato, potato, peas, lettuce and onions;
- carrots, parsnips, parsley and celery - after potatoes, beets or cabbage;
- early potato and tomato - after onion, cucumber, bean and cabbage;
- squash, pumpkin and zucchini - after root vegetables, onions and cabbage;
- radish, turnip and radish - after the potato, tomato, cucumber;
- cucumber - after cabbage, beans, potatoes and tomatoes;
- lettuce, spinach and dill - after the cucumber, tomatoes, potatoes and cabbage;
- bow - after potatoes, cabbage, cucumber.
In the fight against pests of vegetable crops (leaf beetles, mites, shovels) are the herbs. Well get on with vegetable crops:
- Broccoli with iceberg lettuce and parsley;
- Tomatoes with savory, spinach and watercress;
- Cucumbers with dill;
- Radishes and carrots with parsley and chives;
- Strawberries with parsley.
Correctly selected vegetables are able to exert on each other's beneficial effects. A successful combination of planting vegetables with herbs beneficial and creates a harmony of beauty.
It is not recommended to plant a number of culture "relatives", which are often affected by common diseases. Planted near tomatoes and potatoes could be affected by late blight
Deciding to chart rotation on a suburban area, we must first make a plan of the garden, which indicate the location of vegetable and fruit crops.
In drawing up the plan should take into account not only the composition of the soil plot, but also the degree of illumination garden beds at different times of the day
A feature of agricultural cropsIt is that they need to have different nutrients. Depending on the degree of consumption of soil nutrients and micronutrients vegetables can be classified into three groups:
- Plants with weak demand. Among unpretentious to the soil composition crops include: onions, lettuce, herbs, radishes, peas, bush beans.
- Plants with an average severity of nutrients. These include: tomatoes and cucumbers, radishes and beets, cantaloupe, eggplant and leeks, spinach, kohlrabi and climbing beans.
- Plants with high demand. Among these are: zucchini, celery, potatoes, squash, asparagus, rhubarb, cabbage, spinach.
The scheme of crop rotation, drafted planshould be divided into 3 or 4 pieces, following which it will be possible to follow, so that each of the cultures returned to its former place of landing until the third or fourth year.
The first part of the most fertile garden isolateda landing "hungry" crops (cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini). The second part of the site is used for planting eggplant, peppers, tomatoes, which are less demanding on soil fertility, or radish, onion or green. The third part is removed by crops that are able to give a good harvest on the relatively poor soil. There are planted: turnip, carrots, beets, parsley. In the last quarter of the garden are planted potatoes, locally introducing into each well of organic fertilizer (compost or rotted manure ash).
After harvesting the vacated beds advisable to plant the plants, green-manures, are better than any fertilizer will increase the fertility of the soil composition
The next season of the plants that grew in the first section, moving uniformly in a circle, "move" on the fourth, the second to the first, the third to the second, etc.
In drawing up the scheme of crop rotation should alsotake into account the structural features of the plant root system and the depth of their penetration into the soil. With this nutrients are uniformly used with different soil layers. For example: cucumber, onion and cabbage can be fed with topsoil, tomato roots penetrates to a depth of a little less than a meter, and corn - up to two meters.
Knowing the characteristics of each culture and given the successful combination between them, it is possible not only to achieve a rich harvest, but also to protect plants from many diseases.