The problem of strengthening the coastline especiallyI care about those people whose properties are located near water bodies, with artificial or natural origin. Nice view of the water surface increases the attractiveness of residential and commercial buildings, affecting their cost. To enjoy longer communicate with the element of water, it is necessary to conduct the operation on bank protection. Otherwise, the water having a great destructive force, can provoke a gradual subsidence in the coastal zone, and even contribute to its partial collapse. Podmytuyu coast dangerous to humans and their property (movable and immovable), as the ground may at any time just "get away from under his feet." These processes have a negative impact on plants and planted on a plot of landscape designers. It is better to take care of strengthening the banks of reservoirs, without waiting for the emergence of anxiety symptoms begin destruction of the coastal zone. If we make preventive measures could not be on time, the bank of the destruction process can be suspended. There are a number of effective technologies to perform work on bank protection at a high level.
To minimize the likelihood of damagecoastline from the damaging effects of water allows capital bank stabilization. This group of bank protection works include technologies based on the use of gabions, Geomat, rebates, hydraulic concrete sorts, special bulk w / concrete structures.
Called gabions mesh made fromgalvanized wire dual torsion, which are expanded on site in boxes, filled manually largest natural stone. For reliable fastening of separate designs special anchor is applied to the ground. Between themselves, the box twisted wire. When partially filled gabion stone backfill establish so-called "braces", which do not allow the opposite walls of the box "to disperse" in hand.
Beach waters, fortified gabionsfacilities, not blurred and no gutter. For years it preserved coastline contour specified during shore protection works. This technology, used for a long time in Europe, found its application in Russia. See gabion structures can be on ponds, rivers, bypasses and other water bodies.
The coast line of the river Gabion structures carefully framed, having a strict geometric shape. Natural stone, which is in mesh boxes, perfectly in harmony with the autumn forest
Sheet piles, made of PVC andcomposite materials, allow as soon as possible to strengthen the shoreline. This method is considered to be low-budget bank stabilization. More than just a tongue PVC is suitable for arranging the cliffs. One advantage of this material is that it can reuse. When installing individual sheet piles are arranged in a dense wall solid. Reliable connection of adjacent elements is provided by the longitudinal rib projection having on each sheet pile. Dive single or paired sheet piles of PVC by means of an autonomous hydraulic equipment, selected on the basis of ground conditions.
Schematic representation of the installation of sheet piles made of PVC materials to strengthen the steep bluff artificial or natural pond
The second group of materials used inbank protection activities include natural stone and wood piles. These natural materials are not only able to protect the shore from erosion processes of reservoirs, but also give them aesthetic appeal.
The starting material for the manufacture oflog piles hardwoods are used. Most often these goals larch or oak selected. Greater preference is given to the East Siberian larch, capable of being in the water, to maintain its properties for half a century. Sheer Beach, framed oshkurennymi larch trunks, carefully selected according to the diameter, looks very impressive. Especially when in the vicinity of the water table is a structure erected from logs. Concrete fortifications, of course, losing the wooden piles, because look gray and dull. But over time, wood can darken that worsen the decorative qualities of shore protection structures. Speed logs darkening depends on the amount of organic matter in the water. When selecting tree species should take into account the climatic characteristics of the region.
Installation of wooden piles can be carried outcoast through the use of special equipment or a simple manual process. Current models of dredgers allow you to set the wooden piles on the part of the reservoir. Consolidation ponds using logs inappropriate spending on mobile and loose soils.
A neat row of larch logs stressesthe beauty of the shore of the reservoir, preventing its deformation under the influence of the destructive force of water. Strengthening the shore wooden piles provides a safe approach to the pond
Stacking of coastline with natural stone of differentthe value is used on the gentle shores of the long-haul. The value of the shore slope angle should not exceed 20 degrees. In the presence of access roads for the transport of boulders and pebbles used vehicles. In remote places of work are carried out manually. Before laying the stone is mandatory surface preparation shore. If we neglect this step, the stones would simply sink into the soil saturated with water. To avoid this, it is necessary to lay on the coastal zone strengthens the base substrate as a material such as geotextile, geonet or geogrid can be used.
The gently sloping shore of the reservoir volume geogrid reinforced, whose cells are filled with gravel small fraction. The walls of the cells to prevent slipping in the gravel bed of the pond
Stone lock device in the construction of shoreline artificial ornamental pond. Painstaking work is done manually boulders laying masons
A more time-consuming method is considered to strengthenthe coastal strip of the reservoir with the "stone castle" of the device. This term in the language of professional masons called dense stacking boulders (stones with a diameter superior to 10 cm). Each boulder selected place laying, in view of its shape and color. At the same time the big stones are transferred mason master hand. For changing the professional of the business is able to drag several tons of boulders. This method of shore protection is associated with great physical effort, but in the end it turns out not only to strengthen the line of the shore of the reservoir, but also give it a special, unique look.
The most labor-intensive and time-consuming method of shore protection is considered to be based on bioengineering technologies. This approach protects the waterfront from erosion:
- biomaty made from flax or coconut fibers;
- plants, specially selected experts for the landing along the coastline;
- wood and natural stone.
The most commonly used as plantwillow trees (willow, poplar, black and others.) and shrubs (buckthorn, amorphous, physocarpus et al.). Suitable as macrophytes, which include sedges, cattails, reeds, marsh iris, manna, sweet flag, bulrush and other types of flora, well adjacent to water. All plants should be powerful, well-branched root system. Plants are selected based on their degree of resistance to flooding. In the coastal zone is laid ready turf. This process is called odernovkoy coastal slope.
Strengthening the shores of an artificial pond, built on the former site of the ravine, conducted by a planter and willow trees
Bioengineering method of bank stabilization ponds are used to, the rate of water flow which is less than 1 m / sec.
When the device an artificial pond in the garden of the work to strengthen the shores of the future construction is best spent on the development stage of excavation.
The installation of log piles produce at the stage of formation of an artificial reservoir cup. Once the shoreline to begin filling it with water
If you plan to implement large-scale project,the bank protection works trusted professional companies with specialized equipment and trained personnel. In natural waters work is carried out at a convenient time for preventive purposes or in a short time when a threat of destruction of the coastline. Timely solution will save money and avoid the catastrophic consequences for the facilities built on the waterfront.