Construction of wooden bridges and piersalways organized to provide convenient and secure access of people to the water. With the passage of time to the construction of these methods of surface facilities, adding new technologies based on the use of modern building materials. Now you can choose to build a wooden pier on the pile foundation that will last more than one year, or a couple of days to build a pontoon construction for seasonal use. The choice of mooring design and the method of its construction is influenced by characteristics of soil in the coastal zone of the reservoir, relief of the coastline, the speed of the river flow, as well as the load generated in the spring concealing ice shell. Dimensions of facilities depend on its purpose and usage.
Marinas and berths can be used for bathingand sunbathing, mooring small boats (rowing and motor boats, catamarans, jet skis, boats), a romantic getaway on the water in the gazebo, set directly on the wooden platform.
Land bank of the pond, equippedspecially adapted for mooring small boats, as well as parking, repair and maintenance, called a berth. From the standpoint of engineering device data structures are classified into the following subtypes:
- quay walls, erecting along the shore of the reservoir of the gabions and concrete products;
- pontoon berth, nestling on a floating platform made of plastic barrels, pipes, special containers;
- mooring on wooden or metal screw piles driven or screwed into the bottom of the reservoir;
- pier - pier, located perpendicular to the shoreline of a water body.
Making the descent to the pond via the construction of marinas and berths increases the attractiveness of destinations and provides the necessary security
In Russian villages, which lie along the shoresdeep rivers, you can see the wooden piers for fishing boats, built on pile foundations. Earlier, as the piles used solid wood. Most often in the course were larch, oak or alder logs. Currently, preference is given to larger metal piles that may be precast and screw. These types of piles of different structure, as well as the installation method.
Driven piles made of steel pipes,provided with a pointed tip. The soil data piles hammered copra (pile driving machines). This method of installation can have a negative impact on the state of the metal. Pile can "story" and even twist the spiral. In the case of a deformation of the metal pile does not reach solid ground layer, and therefore, can not be a full-fledged support for the pier being built. Not always buses can drive up to the construction of berthing facilities. Therefore, when constructing a pile foundation with his hands using screw piles.
Screw pile, as well as pile, made ofmetal pipe. Near its lower end a tapered blade welded certain configuration, and at the other end - the headroom required to mount the basis for future mooring. With this blade-screw pile is easily screwed into the bottom ground, it does not have to put too much physical effort. During smooth rotation of helical pile evenly enters into the ground. The risk of the tube walls with minimal deformation. The length of the screw piles can be up to 11 m. The tube can be extended or, conversely, to be circumcised if necessary.
Installation of a wooden pier complex shape during the winter greatly simplifies maintenance work. On the ice, you can easily get to any construction site
The greater the load must withstand the pile, the greater must be the diameter of its trunk. In this matter, and the thickness of its walls.
Before beginning installation workcalculate the exact number of piles to choose the desired diameter of the given load. Calculate the minimum distance between adjacent piles in which the pile cap material will not sag. pile length is chosen based on the type of soil and the depth of its freezing in the area.
After tightening the screw piles on a certainthe depth of the cavity in its trunk poured concrete (grade M300 and above). This technique increases the bearing capacity of the support member. When mounting the pile foundation in the winter into a concrete solution is added special additives. By the way, the installation of piles for mooring is preferably carried out in the winter. On the ice it is much easier and cheaper to carry out the work, than in water. If the soil structure is not homogeneous, then the pile is set to different depths, and then leveled by a predetermined level.
Schematic representation of a wooden pier,built on pile foundations. The length of screw piles is determined by test drilling, during which you can learn the depth of solid layers of soil
Screw piles are suitable for multipleuse. They can be screwed, and if necessary disassembly of above-water structures - twist. However, the pile shaft is not recommended while pouring concrete. Served screw piles can be several decades, especially if the surface is treated with a special chemical composition. This means that the mooring erected on the foundation pile, can be maintained for a long time.
Freestanding piles are combined into a singlestructure via channel, welded to their end walls. Sometimes timber is used as a bridge. All welds require special treatment composition, made of epoxy resin, enamel or paint. This coating protects the joints, which are in a moist environment, from corrosion.
On the grounds of the rock pile foundation installation is not possible to produce. In this case, we consider other options for the device quays and piers.
As materials used for stylingdecking on quays and piers, apply water-resistant fine wood (larch, acacia, Ipe, Cumaru, Garapa, bangiray, Massaranduba, Merbau). Each variety of expensive wood has its own unique color and special texture. Cheaper construction is possible through the use of modern water-repellent polymer and wood-polymer materials, which are made on the basis of a special deck and terrace boards. These materials are ideal for the construction of surface facilities, as:
- can not be a process of decay and decomposition from exposure to humidity and precipitation;
- not subject to deformation, because they do not dry out, do not swell, not bend or warp, do not warp or crack (unlike many varieties of natural wood);
- capable of lossless decorative qualities endure significant temperature changes, exposure to ultraviolet radiation;
- have a high resistance to abrasion;
- withstand high impact loads;
- It has a non-slip grooved surface that allows to move safely on the pier during or after rain.
Polymer deck board that is used for installation of flooring on the quays and piers, does not need protection by paints and oils, which greatly simplifies the maintenance of its surface.
Installation of wood flooring on a rigid frame mounted on the pile foundation. Processing boards protective structures, which protect them from premature wear
Installation of wood flooring is carried out bythe use of hidden fastening technology. When decorating the finished pier railing set, descents into the water and mooring fenders and other devices necessary for the operation of small boats.
To build a small jetty pontoonacquire wooden beam, Planed boards, nails, screws, metal corners, the 200-liter barrels and rope to secure them. Square design frame is collected from a bar section 100 by 50 mm on the coast. The length of the side of the square is equal to 2.5 meters. Frame reinforced at the corners with wooden bars installed additionally. The corners of the frame structure should be straight (90 degrees).
The construction of timber collected and sealed barrels, is an example of a simple jetty pontoon type, providing an approach to the pond
Buoyancy is provided by four berth200-liter barrels, previously used for the storage of petroleum products. Barrels must be completely sealed. To ensure this requirement is applied sealant around traffic jams or silicone, to prevent ingress of water tanks. For better attachment to the drum frame construction using additional bars (50 to 50 mm), which attach to the main frame with metal parts. These bars drilled holes through which the rope is pulled to secure the barrel, located on both sides of the frame parallel to each other.
Inverted frame, ready to be launched, is transferred into the reservoir without the deck, which will weight its weight several times
Then the wooden frame of a rectangular shapeinverted, and the barrels are below the structure. In this position, the design is set in a pond near the shore. For its fastening anchor system used. You can also bind the structure to the pile screwed into the ground on the banks of the pond, or a pole embedded in the ground and concreted. The last stage is nailed to the frame of the planed flooring boards. Also constructed a small bridge, providing access to the dock from the shore of the pond.
The final form of a pontoon berth, used in the summer. With the onset of cold weather surface structures dismantled and removed for storage until the next season
From truck tires, exhaust his term,erect poles. For this rubber tires linked to each other by cables or strong ropes. Then associated tire roll in water and set on the bottom. Improvised bars should stick out of the water. Stability of the pillars in the water provided by the river cobbles, casting into the tires. Then, for the construction of columns set wooden walkways.
Simple surface construction site owner,coming to a river or lake, can build their own. The piers, stretching a few meters from the coast deep into the reservoir should build companies with competent professionals and professional equipment. If you save on design and construction of the pier, inviting dubious company for the job, it is possible to "lose" surface structures. It simply drift away from shore. How to return the berthing facilities in place, look at the video.