Natural stone at all times on the rightIt was considered the most popular building material. Granite, marble, sandstone, dolomite, limestone serve as a reliable and extremely beautiful basis for the construction of foundations and buildings, development of water reservoirs and paving, creating architectural elements and upgrading buildings. Not less popular in recent years are artificial analogs of natural stone, which have the same aesthetic appearance, but have higher qualitative characteristics. Laying decorative stone - a simple procedure, which is to master the power of anyone with even the slightest idea of the finishing work.
stacking technology of artificial and naturalstones, having geometrically regular form, is based on the principles already known of brick masonry. But to work with the "wild" stones, are known for their imperfect form, you need to additionally possess knowledge and skills.
Laying can be performed based on a binder and bonding solution and without its use. On this basis, the construction distinguish "wet" and "dry" methods of masonry.
A characteristic feature of the "dry" laying a meticulous selection of the maximum matching stones and meticulously fit them together
"Dry" technology is particularly difficult when working withnatural "ragged" stones, each of which has inherent to it a thickness, height and width. To improve durability and reliability of masonry, all the cracks between the stones are filled with earth or bonding mortars. This method is often used in the construction of low fences, as well as laying the curbs. Here is an example of "dry stone":
"Wet" is used in the construction of masonryhigh buildings, which are one-piece monolithic structure. This method of laying is easier to implement, because it does not provide accurate fit adjacent elements.
Fill cracks and voids between the stones mortar provides firmness and stability of any construction
Natural stones are for the most part havewrong "ragged" form. In the selection of stones is important to consider the load. Stone tiles, the thickness of which does not exceed 1-2 cm, is used for cladding facades and vertical planes. At arrangement of sites with high traffic enough to use as a coating rocks about 2 cm thick. And for areas on which it is supposed to place heavy construction and equipment necessary to take the stones of a thickness exceeding 4 cm.
Length of rubble stones varies, usually in150-500 mm range. Tough and durable stones are good for everything foundations, retaining walls, hydraulic structures and other buildings. Quarry stone before laying subjected to thorough cleaning. Large boulders split and crushed into small pieces.
For the rubble laying of natural stone with their hands suitable raw large pieces of rocks: limestone, granite, dolomite, travertine, sandstone, limestone
To work with natural stone need a - a sledgehammer, b - a small hammer, in - metal ramming, g - a wooden tamper
In the process of crushing of boulders plintovki made using 5 kg sledge hammers and chipping pointed corners of small stones with a hammer weighing 2.3 kg. Like this it is done:
During the construction of vertical structures mostlarge stones and stable is set as a base in the lower row. They are also used in the regeneration of the corners and intersections of walls. When placing the subsequent rows must be ensured, so that the seams were slightly offset from each other. This will increase the strength and reliability of erected constructions.
The solution was spread on the stones with a small surplus. In the process of laying the stones utaplivajut into the slurry using a cam-hammer. After tamping excess spread out over the vertical joints between the stones. The gaps between the boulders are filled with gravel and small stones. The most carefully look seams, whose width along the length of row svey no more than 10-15 mm.
Council. If the solution has got to the front of the stone, it is not necessary to immediately wipe with a wet rag - it will only lead to the fact that clogged pores of rock. The best solution is to leave for a while, so he froze, and then remove with a spatula and wipe the surface of the stone with a dry cloth.
Since the dressing seams rubble and boulders of irregular shape to perform very problematic, while laying natural stone must be placed alternately bonder series and stretcher stones.
Such dressings are based on the principle of chain dressings that are often used in the laying of bricks. With this technology the design is a more robust and durable
At the final stage it is necessary with a spatula to perform grouting and coating rinse under running water if necessary.
In just such a retaining wall can be shown as an example of the "wet" technology:
As an example, the manufacture of artificial stone with his own hands, we want to offer you just such a video instructions of 2 parts:
Now we can talk about the installation rules. In the process of laying artificial stone can be used a method of "a jointing" or without them.
In the first embodiment, when laying the stones to maintain a distance between them in the 1-2 cm, the second - compacted stones close to each other
Artificial stones are mostly haverectangular. Therefore, the work can be applied to them brick stacking technology. Clutches of "stretcher" - a way of laying bricks, in which he placed the long edge to the outer side of the construction, masonry and "poke" - when the stone is narrow edge.
About the construction of artificial structuresstone often used the classic method, in which a process of "stretcher" laying each subsequent series of bricks is placed with a certain offset with respect to the previous one.
With this method of bandaging vertical seams adjacent rows do not coincide, thereby enhancing durability of construction
Among the most popular methods of decorative stone masonry can also be distinguished: the Flemish, English and American.
Decorative stones are used not only forerection of buildings and a landscape design elements, but rather for their design. The basis for their production in favor: granite, agglomerate or mortar.
The outer surface of the artificial stone cladding may repeat the features of any natural stone: marble, limestone, slate ...
To lined surface maintains an aesthetic appearance for a long time, when laying decorative stone should be guided by a number of recommendations:
- Premeditated "pattern" of masonry. The alternation of shapes and sizes of stones, made in light and dark shades, the surface will give a natural and thus more attractive appearance.
- Strictly observe the technology of masonry. Unlike the stones used forconstruction, decorative stones should lay out in rows starting at the top and falling down. This will prevent the ingress of adhesive on the outer surface of the stone, which is purified difficult.
- Apply the adhesive specified by the manufacturer of decorative stone. The adhesive solution was applied with a spatula on a base and the back side of stone.
Laying is performed on aligned, low-fatsurface. For a better base should be moistened with water coupling. The tile with the applied adhesive composition must be vibrating movements tightly pressed against the surface of the ground, and for a few seconds to fix. In the process of laying to avoid long vertical seams.
After completion of laying, to decorative stone served as long as possible, it is desirable to cover it with a protective ground or hydrophobizator.