kind of barberry plants aretreelike shrub about 2-3 meters high, widespread in the wild. Due to beautiful appearance and useful fruit and leaves it became popular as a garden plant. According to one version, the name comes from the Arabic word «beiberi» and due to the fact that the petals of barberry in appearance resemble the shell. The flowers are golden yellow in color, gathered in inflorescences or brush. The smell of flowers is strong and pleasant. Beginning of flowering barberry - in May and June. Crohn's sprawling. Shoots arched away from the main trunk. Autumn leaves become purple color, so that the barberry is beautiful at any time of the year.
The fruit can vary in color. They are oblong berries about 2 cm long, sour taste. Unripe fruits contain alkaloids in high concentrations, because of which are poisonous. The stems and roots contain alkaloid berberine, which has a lemon-yellow color and giving the same color of the plant. This color, astringency, and acid fruits become reasons why barberries are called "northern Lemon". The spines are modified leaves, shaped like a trident. With powerful thorns Barberry is widely used as hedges. Kron form using pruning.
Spectacular variety Atropurpurea planted in well-lit areas, in the shadow of the leaves lose their intense color
Homeland plants considered the Crimea and the Caucasus, but heIt is growing almost everywhere, except in areas with very harsh climate. Best of all barberry develops in areas well lit by the sun. In the shade it is also growing well, but there are problems with fruiting. The plant is drought-resistant, cold transfers without consequences, but can be lost in the water-logged soils. If excessive watering or frequent rain starts to rot a strong root system. Planted shrubs singly, in groups, in the form of hedges. Low-growing varieties are suitable for decorating the rocky hills. Rhode barberry plant has 175 species.
There are over a hundred varieties of barberry, which is grown for decorating gardens and plots. several basic types can be distinguished, each of which often has more than one form:
- Berberis vulgaris;
- Amur barberry;
- arbaris Canadian;
- Berberis thunbergii;
- Ottawa barberry;
- Korean barberry;
- barberry entire;
- barberry sharoplodny;
- barberry monetchaty.
It is a cold-resistant shrubsheight 1.5-2.5 m, which is able to settle down in areas with a fairly harsh climate - up to Western Siberia. Fruiting in the fourth year of life. The most popular three types:
- Atropurpurea. Winter hardiness barberry with bright yellow flowers and edible purple fruit. Leaves of plants grown in well-lit areas, becoming a bright purple color. During the multiplication of seeds inherit the color of the leaves, not all descendants.
- Albovariegata. The shrub grows up to 1 m. The leaves are dark green with patches.
- Aureomarginata. The peculiarity of the barberry - mottled coloration of the leaves. Photophilous plant. In the shadow of the leaves lose color intensity.
Color leaves barberry unique, it may vary depending on the type and location bush breeding habitat
Homeland plants considered the Far East andNorthern China. In addition to these areas, it grows in Primorye and Japan. In the wild form is found on the banks of the rivers, forest edges. Externally very similar to Berberis vulgaris, but the bushes grow higher - up to 3.5 m The fruits are red, edible, have a sour taste.. The leaves are large, toothed, shiny green. Autumn yellow or become purplish.
- Japonica. It is kind of a barberry Amur, wherein beautiful shape leaves - rounded at the top. The number of flowers in the inflorescence is smaller than many other varieties, - 6-12 (usually 20-25).
- Orpheus. This grade is derived by Russian breeders. His feature - the lack of flowering. The height of the bush about 1 m.
Autumn barberry bushes Amur extremely picturesque
In nature, shrub grows on the rocks,the banks and valleys of rivers in North America. Flowering time - the end of May - beginning of June. Shrub is unpretentious, drought-resistant wintering. Flowering and fruiting is very intense. Outwardly resembles Berberis vulgaris. On the territory of Russia is almost not popular, but in the United States for more than two centuries, gardeners pay much attention to the breeding of ornamental shrub forms. The most common hybrids are planted:
American breeders are working on breeding new varieties and hybrids with the Canadian Barberry 1730
This hybrid produced by crossing barberryordinary Atropurpurea and Berberis thunbergii. It features exceptional stamina, resistance to diseases. The flowers have an original color - bright yellow with reddish spots. The leaves can be red, orange, purple. Fruits - with a yellowish tinge. With good care shrub reaches 2-3 m, gives a good gain, it recovers quickly after cutting. Most often gardeners choose decorative hardy varieties:
- Silver Miles.
Yellow flowers with red spots and purple leaves produce a powerful effect. Barberry Ottawa - perfect "material" for the landscape designer
Variety bush got its nameon the Korean Peninsula - the birthplace of the plant, where it can be seen on the slopes of the mountain gorges. The plant is unpretentious to the soil, tolerate drought very well, but can suffer from waterlogging in long periods of thaw. Korean Barberry may peremerzat in the cold, but usually affects only the tops of the shoots. After pruning shoots grow quickly. The plant is susceptible to rust. Color - yellow, fragrant. Fruit - round, red.
Yellow-red colors of the Korean barberry can decorate even the most banal landscape
Homeland barberry edged - mountain areasAsia. The shrub can reach 2.5 m Flowers -. Yellow leaves - green with a gray tint, oblong. An interesting shade of fruit. They are red, but they have a dark color and a gray patina. Shrub is unpretentious, can grow on any soil but acidic. Young plants do not tolerate harsh winters, they should cover. With the increase in demand winter protection disappears. The shrub can be cut. Growing sprouts at an average rate.
Number of barberry flowers edged in racemes up to twenty!
It is also called barberry raznonozhkovym. It is widespread in the mountain regions of Central Asia. Fruits are spherical, have a gray-blue color, is widely used in cooking. They are added to rice, Shurpa, barbecue. A distinctive feature of the fruit of barberry sharoplodnogo - a high content of vitamin C. In addition to the valuable fruits, bush differs spectacular appearance. The flowers are collected into small florets, have a strong odor. In winter, the plant can peremerzat and in need of shelter. With an excess of moisture can hurt. Shrub is very popular among growers of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
The ideal soil for the cultivation of barberry sharoplodnogo considered gravelly, limed
His birthplace - Central and Central Asia. The shrub grows on dry slopes. The height of the bush is usually about 2 m Flowers Painting -. Bright, golden-yellow. Fruit - red. The leaves are small, oblong, green, may have a bluish tint. Bush tends to frost up in cold weather, does not apply to winterhardiness, but brings great heat. To root system barberry monetchatogo not rot, it is necessary to monitor the amount of moisture and ensure drainage. Waterlogging can result in rust and ruin plants.
Barberry monetchaty brings great drought, but it is easy vyprevayut in rainy summer
The most popular variety among gardeners. Thunberg Barberry is extremely diverse. Mention may be at least 50 common varieties, each of which has its own advantages. Berberis thunbergii are widely used in landscape design. Typically bush reaches 1 m in height and 1.5 m in diameter. The inflorescence is composed of a small number of flowers - 2-4. Fruits are bright and have red or coral red. They look very nice, but they can not be eaten.
Unlike other barberries, thisvariety is resistant to rust, powdery mildew. Good regrowth after cutting. Some varieties can peremerzat in severe winters. As describe the characteristics of each of the most popular varieties in one article is difficult to offer a list of the most beautiful Berberis thunbergii:
- Bonanza Gold;
- Atropurpurea Nana;
- Kleiner Favorit;
- Little Favourite;
- Red Chief;
- Golden Ring;
- Dart's Red Lady;
- Dart's Purple;
- Red King;
- Helmont Pillar;
- Red Rocket;
- Rose Glow;
- Pink Queen.
This list is far from exhaustive. It named only the most beautiful and popular varieties of Berberis thunbergii. All of them are perfect for decorating the site. For details, see the video:
The number of varieties of barberry enormous. You can pick them so that they decorated the site since May and up to the frost. The video below demonstrates the diversity and beauty of the original barberry.
Barberry is ideal for the decoration of rockeries, livehedges and lawn frames, alpine gardens, Japanese gardens. The color palette is vast - from the various shades of yellow and red to green, purple and blue. Luxury compositions are obtained by combining different varieties of barberry, and when combined with other types of shrubs. Barberry used as main background and as contrast accent areas.
Dwarf varieties make out the edges and flower bedslawns. Shrub perfectly protects the flowers and grass from trampling. Some gardeners use undersized barberries for registration of the foot of large trees. It looks very picturesque. They are also used for decoration of Japanese gardens.
Often planted as a barberry hedge. Briar is a reliable protection area and looks nice. The fence can be left in its original form and can be cut at its discretion. Well kept barberries form with erect branches. It is possible to form a rounded crown. The video explains how to mow barberry in the form of a fountain.
The best time to plant barberry - spring andautumn. Propagated plant seeds, cuttings, layering, division. The best option for the novice gardener - buy a good seedling, because seed multiplication time-consuming.
To propagate cuttings barberry, it gentlycut, planted in the fertile soil on the lawn or indoors, watering and wait until roots appear. Ready seedling transferred to the open ground, along with the soil from the pot.
During the multiplication of layering escape prishpilivayut,sprinkled the ground, and the soil is moistened while strains do not take root. Even more convenient way - by dividing the bush. He removed from the land, share, seated. In this case the bush quickly take root and begin to bear fruit.
Barberry is not picky about soil. The main thing is not to be flooded, and the selected location is well covered. Shrub planting should be in the sun or in partial shade. For single bushes dig holes 0.5h0.5h0.5 m.
In order to hedge - or the same pit, ortrench desired length. Yama is well moistened, equip drainage (suitable gravel, leaves, sawdust, etc.). After that, make the soil with fertilizers (superphosphate, peat or humus). Place ready for planting.
The sequence works:
- In a prepared recess lowered sapling so that the neck of the root was underground at a depth of 3-4 cm.
- When planting hedges the distance between the individual bushes should be 30-40 cm.
- Planting should be well watered.
- The last step - mulching the soil with sawdust or leaves.
As you can see - it's pretty simple.
When planting barberry be sure to flatten the roots of seedlings
Feed the barberries begin in the second yearafter landing. For this purpose, urea (20-30 g per 1 bucket of water) or compound fertilizers (at the doses indicated in the manual). After this shrub are fed every 4-5 years.
plant should be watered only during longdroughts. Suffice it to 2-3 times a week. Be sure to cut the old and dry branches. You can do bush clippers for the formation of the crown, if desired. These procedures are carried out 2-3 times per season.
Experienced gardeners recommend treatingbush against pests. Most often it hit the aphid and flower Moth. The problem is solved by fitoverm 0.2% solution. If barberry struck by mildew, use fundazol solution (20 g per 1 bucket of water). Frequent attack - rust, struggling with her 1% solution of liquid Bordeaux.