Cellar in the country is difficult to replace the fridge: Only a special room will accommodate vegetable stocks and dozens of jars of salads, jams and pickles, which are lovingly prepared thrifty housewife. One of the most popular options - do not use the basement of a residential building and build a cellar with their hands near the house, making the original exterior trim and equipped to your liking inside.
two concepts should be distinguished - cellar and basement. The room, which is in the house at the first floor that is below ground level, commonly referred to as a basement. Its area is the area most often at home, so it easily accommodates several business units. There may be placed pantries (including cellar), boiler room, laundry room, and when deliberate insulation - an extra room or pool. A common option - a spacious garage, a combination of workshop.
Cellar has a specific purpose - itused only for food storage: seasonal holiday harvest or canned stock. The rooms are equipped with plenty of comfortable shelves, racks, stands as well as the ventilation system and the planned thermal insulation, creating the most appropriate mode for the storage of fresh vegetables. Glacier (natural freezers) provided for some products. The cellar can be located in the basement of an apartment house and a separate area in the dugout or the above-ground structure. Build a cellar in the country with their own hands is not more difficult than to build a gazebo or a bath.
Detached cellar - an opportunity to decorate gardening area the original structure of the most incredible designs, styles reflecting the entire site
Masonry, the unusual shape, the heavy doors with iron hinges and bolts - and before us is not a simple rustic cellar, and a fragment of an ancient castle
The most common variant of suburban cellar -poluzaglublenny. It provides the ability to simultaneously kill two birds with one stone: to decorate the territory of the original building and create optimal conditions for storage of vegetables and fruits.
All the structure is divided into two different sizeparts, one of which is located above the ground, the second - in the ground completely. Deepening the bottom of the largely depends on the level of groundwater. If it allows the storage reaches a depth of 2.3-2.5 m. The height of the upper part is dependent on the application. If it's just a decorative vestibule, it is small in size and limited to the height of the front door, equal to the growth of the person. If the aerial part plays the role of a summer kitchen, the dining room or guest house, the ceiling height is equal to 2.5 m.
The desire to build a cellar poluzaglublennyTypically occurs when the basement of house is not suitable for storage of products, in addition, there is a need in the construction of additional buildings, for example, a summer kitchen. Of course, you need a detailed work plan and future structure of the scheme. For the walls of the cellar can be used any material, since its construction is similar to the construction of an ordinary house with a basement. As a rule, used brick, concrete, stone, and for the above-ground part of the great tree.
A beautiful example of poluzaglublennogo suburban cellar: a small stone vestibule with wooden roof rises above the earth, and the storage is underground
Poluzaglublenny cellar: a - view from above; b - in section; 1 - heat-insulating layer; 2 - finishing whitewash; 3 - top layer - tile; 4 - bituminous coating; 5 - fixing clay castle; 6 - base
The floor in the underground part of the concrete is poured, sometimesstop on the hard-packed clay. For floors are ideal wooden beams. All parts of the building: walls, floors, ceilings - covered insulated from scrap materials, such as clay lubricant. Ideal - the use of modern waterproofing: mineral wool, asphalt and coatings.
It connects two tiers convenient hatch, the dimensions of which are determined by the portable packaging - bags, boxes, buckets, cans.
The staircase leading to the cellar, usually looks like an ordinary ladder. If additional ground space is not heated, the upper part is equipped with a hatch
General rules for building an independent cellar:
- Construction is carried out during the warmer months.
- For the construction of the cellar is ideal hill.
- Mandatory condition - equipment cellars ventilated premises.
- The wooden parts are further processed antiseptic.
- The front door is located on the north side.
First we need to dig a pit, which istwo feet on each side of the large cellar. Spare 50 cm come in handy when you need to make waterproofing the walls, or to carry out communication. Walls spread of bricks, concrete blocks or stone. If in the course are wooden logs or timber, then each part should be treated with special means against rot and mold. Often they make a monolithic concrete structure in the form of a cap: preparing shuttering, reinforcement of constructing a kind of grid and fill it with concrete mortar. To protect the corners and joints used roofing material. After removing the formwork walls on both sides plastered with cement mortar.
There is a decision they do not wait long dryingconcrete. Instead of a monolithic casting can be used asbestos cement sheets, fixed on a wooden crate. On the outside of the structure should be established to cover the mastic asphalt.
Plaster for waterproofing walls from the outside is different from the usual: it is composed of bituminous mass, which is an excellent water-repellent material
Protection of groundwater that can not onlyincrease humidity inside the room, but also destroy the wall serves as a drainage layer. He can communicate with the catchment well dug near the cellar. As the drainage material is gravel, brick fight, a small fraction of stone, rubble.
If the cellar is built on a slope or in a trench, be sure to take care of water drainage, digging up the slope small grooves
The base of the structure to protect moisture-proof bag: pour a layer of broken bricks and rubble, tamped it, and pour the heated bitumen.
To the underground room is not accumulatedhazardous gases and does not appear superfluous moisture from condensation, it is necessary to arrange ventilation - a primitive system consisting of a single tube. Suitable inexpensive galvanized pipe with a diameter of 10-15 cm One end goes into the room where the vegetables are stored, and the second -. On the street. Improved decision implies the presence of two tubes: one, located near the ceiling, designed for extraction, and the second, on the floor - for fresh air.
The above-ground part of the construction in the last instance,When fully completed work on the cellar equipment, made a clay castle and backfilling. It should be wider than the bottom to the top side of the underground protect against low temperatures, rain and snow melt.
Variants of construction pogrebnitsy more - fromminiature vestibule to the large room. If its primary purpose is to protect the hatch leading into the ground, it is enough to make a good waterproofing and tight-fitting door. If you plan to make a full room suitable for frequent guests, for example, the summer kitchen, then to the improvement would have to be taken more seriously. Particular attention should be paid to the arrangement of the roof, insulation and wall. The final stage of the construction of the cellar for the internal finishing.
Pogrebnitsa, located partially or completely underground, naturally keeps the temperature, the optimum storage of fresh harvest and canning
Interior finishing cellar includes not only the flooring and cladding or plaster walls, but also the installation of shelves, boxes and drawers for storage of crops
There are many ideas for the construction ofpogrebnitsy. Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary arbor or summer kitchen: not far from the house is a neat little house with a small window and no one will say that it is a surround basement with ten racks.
Often used for the construction of the cellar basement of the house is not, and spacious underground room under the summer kitchen - convenient and practical
Many of the buildings except the cellar, and not name. All their appearance suggests that behind the door hides a rich food supply for the winter, and perhaps even wineries. These buildings are characterized by original design: a deliberately rough masonry, unusual configuration of the roof, strong oak doors.
Cellar, surrounded on all sides by land, the easiest to build on the territory of which crosses a small gully, ditch or trench artificially dug
Earthmoving cellar with the so-called bunding to determine the easiest: all sides they are surrounded by an earthen embankment, covered with turf or flower garden.