Many townspeople are trying to go to the summer garden,to relax, to breathe fresh air and at the same time to work on the ground. In addition to the garden shed at their summer cottage, it is desirable to have a garage, which houses not only the car, but also various garden tools, hardware, power tools. Many gardeners use the premises as a shop, with its walls around machines and other devices. As they say, would have a garage, use it as a prudent owner will always find. Build a garage in the country with their own hands can be of different materials. Lumber, bricks, concrete blocks, cinder block, etc. With self-construction works is possible to reduce the cost of facilities, decent saving on paying builders brigade services. A person with little experience in construction, and have some time, you can cope with this task. The process is significantly accelerated if to call for help a few friends.
Garage can be wood, metal orstone. Metal garages are going very quickly from the final set, however, it will require assistance of an experienced welder. Such designs require additional insulation, if the planned exploitation in the winter. The most widely used garages, built of stone materials:
- silicate blocks (gazoblokov);
- aerated concrete blocks (foam concrete blocks);
- breeze blocks (cinder blocks).
The stone buildings are the most reliable, because they are called capital.
Stylish wooden garage, built near her house with their own hands, can perfectly fit into the overall design suburban area
A metal garage, purchased in flat packed, a few days going to the summer cottage with the active participation of an experienced welder
Any building requires training, during which a draft of the object, purchased all the necessary materials, conducted excavation and the list goes on. Let us consider each step separately.
, It is necessary before to build a garage to givevisualize the future structure and draw a small circuit-project on a piece of paper. Of course, you can order technical documentation from professional designers, but then have to forget about the economy, as experts of data services are not cheap. Garage is not a piece of architecture, so you can design the object and himself. At the same time, decide to answer some questions:
- For what purpose built garage? Only for car parking space? If you plan to repair the machine and its maintenance, or inspection pit is needed? Do cellar Need? Write down all the wishes on a piece of paper and keep in mind when designing their project plan.
- What size garage may have, starting fromthe available free space at their summer cottage? Specifies the width of the structure, length, and, of course, the height. If only garage parking machines, it is sufficient to 3 m in width and 5.5 m in length. The height depends on the growth of the automobile owner, because he will have the most to be in this room.
Sketch of capital garages being built of bricks, blocks and other stone materials, with pent roof, small window openings, ventilation system
At this stage, to begin transfer schemesscribbled on a piece of paper on the real terrain. For builders technical language that sounds like a "binding to the terrain." Determined with the location of one of the corners of the future of the garage and drive a sledge hammer or heavy hammer the first peg.
Next, using a measuring instrument(Roulette, gon), measure other angles and also drive in stakes. Between pegs pull a thin nylon cord, which can take up to 40 meters, depending on the size of the garage.
The stakes can be used as a 40-centimeter pieces of rebar of 10-12 mm in diameter. It usually takes up to 10 peg.
Begin active construction of a garage at the cottage withexcavation work, in which a trench dug under the fill strip foundation. The width of the trench is typically 40 cm, depth is dependent on the degree of freezing of the soil in the area. Not enough to flush the foundation can cause cracks in the walls of the garage, and other damage. In some regions, and 60 cm is sufficient, and in the other have to dig deeper twice.
To the bottom of the trench dug for the foundation, notwas loose, the soil layer is selected to a natural density (i.e., the ground at that location should not be bulk). The walls of the trench carefully treated with a shovel, seeking their flatness and verticality.
Of all the types of foundations should chooserubble concrete option, since it is possible to fill reduce the cost of cement by the use of quarry stone. Works on the rubble concrete foundation carried out simply enough. In the dug trench stacked rows of rubble stone, spilling every masonry grout. Operation is repeated until until dug trench fill to the brim.
During the construction of the garage at the cottage is filledrubble concrete foundation. In the diagram: 1. Waterproofing. 2. blind area, which prevents water from entering the foundation. 3. Crushed stone, filled with cement-sand mortar
It is important to note that the strength of the foundation directlyIt depends on the quality of cement. To the garage building did not give shrinkage and not covered with a web of cracks, it is necessary to buy cement (Portland cement) grade 400.
cement and sand to take batch solutionratio of 1: 2.5. In other words, one part cement should account for two and a half parts sand. Water is added slowly, ensuring mobility solution. Water usually take as much and cement.
Around the perimeter of the trench is set bythe level of the formwork using the board to fill the base with concrete mortar. If the site was not initially aligned, then the basis of the reference height of the cap is taken the highest point. Added 10 cm to base and appears horizon. On the dry surface of the cap is laid two layers of waterproofing, which use roll roofing material. The horizontal waterproofing of walls to protect against the penetration of capillary moisture coming from the ground.
Before the start of construction of the wall must beinstall metal garage door, which will be secured in the masonry. The strength of the gate frames with the wall provide connections inserts, welded thereto in an amount of four pieces on each side. As an embedded parts used round bars whose diameter should be at least 10-12 mm. When the masonry metal rods embedded in the seams.
By the way, do not forget before installationgate paint surface, preferably in two layers. When installing, check the level of verticality of their position, if necessary, place them under the corners of flat stones or iron plates. Exposed wooden gate prop braces.
After completing the installation of the gate frame, beginspread garage wall by a chain of masonry. In this case the joints overlap the previous series, followed by a number of cinder block or other stone materials selected for the construction of the garage. In accordance with the technology of masonry always start with the corners. Angles between adjacent exposed pull cord, which is placed on the remaining blocks in the row. Then again, raise the corners, pull the cord again and spread the next row of blocks.
Using a spirit level with masonry walls of the garage with his hands ensures the evenness of all surfaces, both vertical and horizontal direction
With the help of a plumb periodically check the verticality of the walls. Careful attention is paid to the vertical angle. The horizontal position of stacked rows shall be verified building level.
Overlapping garage also serves as its roof,so the end walls are of different height, thereby providing the desired roof slope needed to drain rain water. The upper part of the side walls are also carried out with a bias, with the altitude difference is for each meter by five cm height of the front wall, which is inserted into the garage door is typically 2.5 meters, and the back (deaf) -. 2 meters. If you want to make the walls higher, the masonry needs reinforcement, which is provided by a metal grid to be placed on every fifth number.
Cement-sand mortar used for masonry walls of the garage, mix in the following ratio:
- bucket Portland cement grade 400;
- four and a half buckets of sand.
Water is added until the solution untilacquires the consistency of thick cream. The plasticity of cement-sand mixture will give the usual clay or lime putty. Finished wall overwritten with cement mortar or plaster, and then the lime.
To carry out at the height of masonry blocks using scaffolding, which have to withstand working, several blocks and a container with a solution
Overlapping is made of a steel I-beambeams, the height of which may be 100 - 120 mm. These beams easily blocked the garage, the width of which does not exceed 6 meters. To add the garage width 20 cm and length thereby receive beams. The long wall beams give birth to 10 cm, with cinder blocks in place supports replaced by blocks made of reinforced concrete. Step placement of beams is 80 cm.
Then overlap "stitched" 40-millimeterboards on the lower shelves of the beams. Above them stretches roofing material, which is poured slag, expanded clay or stacked mineral wool. Next is 35mm screed of cement mortar, the surface must be carefully aligned.
After drying screeds her coat with a primer and coated with a waterproof roofing material (eg, Bikrost, Rubemast et al.), Glued with mastic or melting method.
The floor in the garage should be concrete towithstand the weight of the machine. On lined earthen foundation is poured a layer of fine gravel or sand, good tamp and pour 10-centimeter concrete screed. Concrete was prepared from cement, sand and pea gravel (1: 2: 3). With exposed lighthouses watching the floor surface to prevent any hillocks and hollows.
Outside the perimeter of the garage arrange blind area,wherein the width of half a meter. Also earthy base is covered with gravel, over which is poured concrete thickness of 5 cm. Otmostki built at a slight slant, contributing to the rapid drainage of rainwater from the walls of car garage.
Inside the garage finishing it depends on the car owner's preference and the availability of additional targets use of the room. Be sure to provide lighting and the possibility of heating
So it is possible, without haste, to build a garage on thecountry house with their hands. Carrying out the work according to plan, and moving from one stage to another, you will be able to get a well made, safe space for car parking.