When any construction or repairs necessary vypolnyaetsya wiring because it will be in the future depends not only safe and nadisauskiene electrical and electronic equipment, as well as the life and health of You and others.
We will try to tell You about the basic rules of safety during wiring work with their hands, ways and particularities of the electrical installation.
Today, there are several types of wiring:
- Internal electrical installation (installation of internal wiring);
- installation VL (air-line);
- pollutionabatement: boiler, air conditioner, washing machine or oven;
- installation of cable (wire) to ripple;
- installation cable in the cable channel;
- cable laying in strobach(installation of internal wiring) etc.
This article will cover the basic nuances when:
- The installation of the wiring in the house or apartment;
- Compliance with the requirements of SNiP and PUE in electrical work;
- Vibrative, stamps and cable cross-sections for specific tasks;
- Shtroblenie walls and installation of internal/external wiring.
For a start, we recommend You familiarize yourself with the video that will allow You to better understand the key points when you perform wiring with your hands.
The main objective montageplatte their hands–is to minimize financial costs while maintaining the quality and reliability of electric communication.
Provoslavnaya(grinders), or the chasers with household cleaner;
The led voltage (DMM);
- The number and capacity of household appliances;
- The number of sockets, switches;
- The place of installation of home appliances;
- Neobhodimosti cable or wire;
- The number of circuit breakers calculation of power consumption;
- The place of installation switchboard.
Any electrical installation begins with the installation of the electrical distribution panel. There are 2 types of these devices:
Vnutrineironalnah shield(mounted in the cut using grinders or wall chasers opening of the appropriate size);
External or nakednessdeeply flap(fastened with dowels or nails directly to the wall or any other structure).
Before direct montezemelo on the installation location, you must dial the inner part. It is enough to determine the number of circuit breakers on the basis of scolecite rooms highfunctioning purpose.And the number of necessary equipment in them.
If You are wiring in a wooden house or apartment,let’s calculate the number of machines, their power and purpose:
- For apartments the necessary two-pole AV (automatic switch)25A for input – 1pc, and private homes where the power is supplied from 3-phase network three – phase AV to 40A;
- AV SPST 10A for the lighting (depending on the number of rooms, considering the bathroom, toilet and other facilities). Because of the lighting network potrebitelski current, rational use 1-2 machine to connect the entire apartment or home;
- AV SPST 25A at the rate of one switch per room. They are designed to protect wiring, appliances and equipment against short-circuit.
- If You will be smartraveller, requires an additional double-pole AV to 25A;
- To connect furnace required one – or three-pole AV 40A depending on its type.
In the result You have poluchitsya this or a similar electric shield
After berkelycaresm setcapability shtroblenie walls under the wiring, or the installation of cable in cable channel or ripple directly on the walls of the room depending on the chosen method of wiring cable.
Grooves is a special ditches (grooves) in the wall prorezalsya with the help of special tools (cone-machine or chasers with industrial vacuum cleaner) in the cases when the installation of a covert elektroprovodnoi any other services (water supply, Internet, telephone, Sewerage etc.).
If You plan to sheathe the walls and ceilings are plasterboard, then shtroblenie walls required.
In such sluchajnosti to run wiring in conduits or ripple with mount on wall with special clips.
Let us next consider how to do the direct wiring in the house.
And so You have already decided on the number of outlets, switches and fixtures. Next, you need to select the brand and diameter of the cable.To long not to tell«how and why?», I have to say – the best option to use VVGng cable 3×2,5 mm2(phase, zero and earth) to connect the sockets and appliances, kabelweg 3×1,5 мм2дляподключения lights and switches and cable VVG VVG 3×4 or 5×4 for the connection of an electric furnace (depending on the number of phases).
To start the routed cable (wire) – in corrugations, and then use special clamps fasten it to the walls of the wooden house or apartment.
As a result, one end of the wiring in the corrugation will be points where you need to be connected, and the second at the installation location of the electric panel.
Very often «electricians-lovers» connect the wiring harness using a twist. This is a gross mistake and a violation of all the rules of electrical safety.
In such cases there is heating and oxidation of the contacts.As a result, in the best case, the wires just otherout, and at worst is a fire or a fire.
Previously, high-quality wiring used a soldering iron solder and tin, and now –special clips.
They provide good contact and sealing contact joints. However, they can be used soedinitel wires with a small cross section. (up to 10 mm2).
If you need to connect the cable with a diameter of 10 mmTwo and above, it is necessary to use special sealed coupler, designed for a voltage of 0.4 kV (220 – 380V).
They provide a perfect contact to fully protect the connection from moisture and serve for decades.
Features installation of wiring in the bathroom ↑
- Do not install junction and connection boxes;
- Do not install sockets and switches near sinks or other water sources;
- To protect people from electric shock in the distribution flaps must be mounted RCD (the device of protective switch-off;
- All equipment must be grounded!
Because 90% of the times of the USSR is not earthed,it has to run independently. For this it is necessary to mount additional wire (e.g., PV3 1×4) from the main distribution panel in the common hallway to the bathroom.There is also another barbaric method is to score the wall iron pin with a diameter of 10 mm to a depth of 1 meter. This can be done only in the case if your house is concrete walls.
- For lighting you want to apply a safe voltage.Of course in 90% of cases this item was not respected and the lighting is powered from a fixed AC source voltage of 220V.To resolve this violation, you need to redo the power supply circuit of the bathroom and install outdoor step-down transformer 220/12V.
Depending on your area, pricing can differ significantly. So specifically to answer the question «what is the cost of wiring» in a private home will not work.
Some experts believe based on the number of points, the other on the square footage and the method of wiring, and others take the numbers from the ceiling…
Well, for example, a complete installation of the wiring harness under the key on average will cost:
- For a Studio apartment – 5 000 roubles;
- For two-bedroom apartments up to 40 m2 – 8 000 roubles;
- For two-bedroom apartments up to 60 m2 – about 10 000 roubles;
- 3-room apartment with area of 72 m2 is about 15 000 rubles.
If You are interested in a quote for wiring in a private house, everything is more difficult, and each particular electrician or electrical organization has its own price.
Also, to consolidate the material «the wiring in the apartment with his hands» we recommend you to view the following video.