Water facilities

Well in the country: technology of drilling wells in the sand with their hands

Well in the country: technology of drilling wells in the sand with their hands

There is nothing that complicates the life of the cottager, as the absence of large amounts of water. In the warm season, during the summer rush, especially felt its deficit: it is required for the shower and pool for watering backyard and garden, just in order to cook dinner or wash. Usual well, and even better — deep well in the yard can save the situation. But, unfortunately, hire crew and rent equipment will cost a pretty penny. However, it appears that well on giving her a very real thing. We offer you understand how to do everything on their own.

The contents

The types of borehole structures

Well there are different types depending on design features, depth and characteristics of the extracted water, but for drilling on the country station will only fit two types:

  • sandy (or «on the sand»);
  • artesian (or «on limestone»).
The types of wells

Cottages are suitable for both types of wells, artesian and sand but only sand option can be done independently, without the use of technology

Title kinds of says it all: in the aquifer are marked with rocks or sand, or limestone. In addition, both species have depth. Drilling wells sand is at a depth of 50 m, and artesian – up to 200 m. it is clear that wells «on limestone» independently to master, so for the cottages the best option is the sandy kind.


Well «on the sand» and «limestone» differ not only in the depths of the mine, but its diameter and the casing pipe sizes

First you need to define the parameters of the groundwater. Before turning to professionals, you can ask the neighbors how deep their wells. If the parameters do not exceed 25 meters, there is a chance to drill a well on their own.


The location of the borehole choose close to home and sometimes mine lay directly in the utility room or annexe connected to the cottage

Mechanisms for individual device wells

Typically, the device well use special drilling equipment, so there is a legitimate question: how to drill a well in the country without its application? It turns out that there is a simple manual mechanism that consists of the rig and hanging from your speakers. Consider in more detail the individual pieces of equipment.

Grounds is a tower, resembling a tripod. The material for the supports are or metal pipes, or logs, United at the top by a pivot. There is also a lift unit of the drilling column. Two legs of the tower are connected with a winch (winch).


The design of the equipment for drilling may be different. In some cases, if the waterproof layer lies near the surface of the earth, enough hand drill

Column to drill – the main functional element. It consists of several three-meter rods connected by couplings. Sometimes it is enough length to five feet. The column that is sinking into the ground, and its length is adjustable by means of rods. Replacement special equipment serve water tubes, equipped with steel couplings.

Drilling heads

Drill bits should be chosen depending on the nature of the soil. Here are the most commonly used: 1 — «spoon», 2 — «the coil», 3 — «bit», 4 — «bailer»

Striking or cutting the ground element is a drill head. It is screwed onto the column using a threaded adapter. In the process of lowering the head into the soil, the soil fills the cavity of the drill. For different types of rocks use different nozzles: «spoon» suitable for soft soil, «the coil» — for dense, «bit» for hard rocks. The bailer is removed the loosened soil to the top.

To the walls of the well not sprinkle, use of the casing – typically an ordinary plastic plumbing products, light and convenient for installation. The bottom pipe is a kind of Shoe having a bottom with smooth or jagged edge.


Two basic types of Shoe for casing and gear (cutter), b – smooth. The cut area: 1 – the teeth 2 – smooth edge

Thus, the device is well going on with the use of special equipment, some of which can be purchased at the store part to make yourself.

Preparatory stage – the pit

The top layer of soil is prone to shedding, so well protected by special construction of the pit, simply, a hole one and a half meters, the depth of which not more than 2 metres. To strengthen the walls apply Board, they also lined the floor. The strength of the floor depends on the thickness of the boards, therefore, use of the product is not thinner than 5 cm the Top hole is closed by the second flooring.


Pits for sand wells are small in size and are found in shallow water, whereas boreholes for artesian wells go several meters into the ground

Then prepare the holes in the following order:

  • erecting rig for drilling;
  • clean the upper deck;
  • find the center point on the lower floors.
  • make a hole the diameter of which coincides with the Shoe and the couplings;
  • cut a second hole in the upper deck.

The accuracy of the vertical created by two holes, guarantees the quality of drilling.

The drilling process: the sequence of actions

If you prepare the necessary equipment and to withstand a series of steps, there are how to do well. Ready the drill rig is equipped with the head mechanism in the form of a winch. The rod is passed through both holes and down on the need to increase it and fix the gate. Rotating gate usually two, and a third person is needed to correct the alignment of the rod.


If the well is shallow, you use only the drill column, sending it down vertically. Tripod with the necessary lift for wells having a larger depth

On the column tag, retreating from the upper deck 60-70 cm down the column for the designated distance, retrieve it back, removing raised with Boer breed. In the same way immerse purified column several times. Greater depth requires greater rod. To this end, a coupling attached to another pipe.

Depending on soil stability choose a method of drilling with casing pipes or without them. With a steady, dense soils it is possible to drill the entire well entirely without using casing pipes. The crumbling of the breed say that after 2-3 meters should be installed tube equipped with a Shoe. Pipe diameter wider than the diameter of the coupling, so the pipe comes into the mine to work. Sometimes, to put, use a screwing or a sledgehammer.


As the casing used the product for laying water pipe — metal or plastic pipes of the required diameter for the exterior

If the rocks crumble, it collapses. With this purpose, the drill is not lowered too low – lower end of the casing for a certain distance. Usually it is equal to half the length of the drill. Thus, the process is the alternating of the drilling and installation of casing pipes, building up as you descend.

Preparation of facility for operation

Completion of drilling is when the drill reaches the waterproof layer. Well thoroughly clean the nozzle «bailer», and at the bottom set the filter that will act as a barrier to delay solids. The role of the filtration grid may be a metal grid with a small cell or perforated pipe with a small gap.


Filter well consists of the following parts: 1 – perforated pipe, 2 – hole of the necessary diameter, 3 wire coil, 4 – metal grid

Equipping the inner part of the bore, equip and decorate its above-ground part. To do this, remove the Board from both decks, dismantled the panels of the walls of the hole and produce backfill. For pumping water from the well installs a pump (submersible or surface). The upper part of the structure is decorated with decor. Will fit a variety of design ideas, from simple canopy to head to the pavilion or fake well. One of the options – setting crane.

Here are two examples of how to build the well at the cottage:

Decor well

Beautiful and original design of the well is small decorative well made of wood, very reminiscent of a real. The design of the decor may be different


Masking of mines, wells, boreholes decor made of artificial stone. In appearance it resembles a natural element — stone or a large stump

Troubleshooting of downhole blockages

Underground water the same as any other, are the impurities, so over time there will be clogging of the well. About the time of tassel signals the intermittent flow of feed water.

Methods of purification are various, while using specific mechanisms and substances.

  • Water compressor. Deposits of sand and silt can be easily removed with water under pressure.
  • Air compressor. Effective for the removal of soft particles, such as silt. Using a vacuum tube blow tube along the entire length.
  • Explosion. The artificial creation of a short circuit, which explodes a bottle with gunpowder, lowered to the bottom of the well. The blast breaks up the clog.
  • Acid. It is used with caution, as it may damage the filter or tube. Acid is injected into the pipe, leave for two days, and then pumped the water to clear.

Equipping a water borehole in the country, can provide a house with the garden with the necessary amount of water, and low material costs.

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