Water facilities

Abyssinian wells: the unit well of the needle with your hands

Abyssinian wells: the unit well of the needle with your hands

The issue of supply of country land that needs to be solved, or even about the minimum comfort, however. If water is needed, and a budget, it’s time to think about low-cost technical construction, available for most gardeners. Moreover, the technology with which you can set Abyssinian well with your hands, not very complex. Such well or hole of the needle, as it is called, in the 19th century was invented by Americans, and its exotic name given after the British began to use it in Abyssinia (Ethiopia).

The contents


The necessary geological conditions

Originally an Abyssinian well was shallow borehole with hand pump which pumps water from a sand aquifer. From the usual well this is different because the water is very clean. Its not clogging dirt, drains, disputes and perched. First originating in Russia of the 19th century, this building still is a success.

However, before you start the implementation of the plan, you need to ask about the Geology of the area. Generally, neighbors who have long own sites nearby, aware of the location of soil layers and depth of aquifers. They have already made their own choice in favor of the well or wells.

Construction of water sources and the Geology of the area

The choice of the structure, which is used as the optimum source of water on land largely depends on the Geology of the area

Proceed to the device of the Abyssinian well is possible only in case, if the upper aquifer is not located deeper than 8 m from the ground surface. With greater depth the rise of water using a surface pump can be problematic. If the aquifer lies below, should be to drill a hole in the sand with a larger diameter or press on the pump.

The aquifer, which will focus the well should be of medium-grained sand or mixtures of gravel and sand. Through such a soil, the water can flow freely, so it will be easy to pump out. The layers located above the water-carrier, we are interested in only in terms of their practicability. And the tool that will be used in the work will not be able to penetrate deposits of boulders and gravel, or hard stone layers. To conduct such drilling requires special equipment.

The advantages of this type of supply

The likelihood that your site can be built Abyssinian well is very large, if the neighbors at the cottage this hole is already there.

Well, the needle on the lot and the house

One of the significant advantages of the Abyssinian well is that it can be constructed in the project area and in the house

The advantages of this construction is difficult to overestimate:

  • the design is simple and cost is inexpensive;
  • for arrangement of this well don’t need much space: the building does not violate the integrity of the landscape;
  • don’t need any equipment nor access roads for her arrival;
  • the pump can be mounted both on the land and indoors;
  • the whole job will take no more than 10 hours: it all depends on the depth of the water-carrier and the hardness of the ground;
  • high-quality filter to prevent silting, which allows long to operate the installation;
  • in the well do not get contamination from the surface of the earth;
  • the quality of the water from this well is comparable to spring;
  • bore needle provides a continuous supply of the volume of water which is enough for watering the parcel, and for household needs: the average debit of the well is approximately 0.5-3 cubic meters/hour;
  • the device can be easily dismantled and installed elsewhere.

Abyssinian wells are not as deep as conventional wells in the sand, so the possibility of ingress of dissolved iron decreases. This means that the need for expensive filters when their application is missing.

Water from the Abyssinian well

Abyssinian the well is pumping water from the aquifer, which is sufficiently deep to ensure the normal operation of any plumbing and irrigation plot

How to work without special equipment?

Abyssinian the well can be easily done with the use of special equipment. But to buy such mechanisms specifically for a single well is unprofitable, and to invite experts expensive. The construction of the bore needle can be produced with your own hands and using only that tool that is already available or can be expensive to purchase.

Preparation of the necessary tools and material

The kit for Abyssinian well included:

  • a drill and a grinder;
  • a hammer and a sledgehammer;
  • a couple of gas keys;
  • to clogging the pipes need pancakes from the rod 20-40 kg;
  • welding machine;
  • garden drill 15 cm in diameter;
  • pipe: ? inch with a length of 3-10 meters ? inches – 1 meter;
  • pipe 1 inch for the well, which should be cut into chunks 1-1. 5 m and have a short thread with each of the parties;
  • nuts and bolts for 10;
  • stainless steel mesh lace woven П48 width 16 cm and length 1 m;
  • the automotive hose clamps size 32;
  • clutch: 3-4 pieces of cast-iron to score a pipe, and steel to connect pipes;
  • two meters of wire 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter;
  • check valve, HDPE pipes and couplings, pumping station.

In any city there is a market or hardware store, where you can tap the threads and buy all the materials and tools.

Independent filter manufacturer

Filter need inch pipe with a length of about 110 cm, which is welded to the tip of the cone. This is called tip and needle for the Abyssinian well. If not, you can just flatten the end of the pipe with a sledgehammer. Using the grinder on the two sides of the tube through the slit over a 80 cm 1.5-2 cm in length is about 2-2,5 cm to the overall strength of the pipe was not disturbed. On the tube on the wire, and then overlapping the mesh and fix it with clamps approximately 8-10 cm Mesh can be soldered and if there are certain skills.

Filter for Abyssinian well

In America, for example, a filter for Abyssinian well made with internal mesh and wire, which is located above and below the mesh

It is important to know that the solders with lead should not be used below the water from coming toxic substances. For works only apply a special flux and tin solder.

Drilling technology

Drill the soil with the garden drill, increasing its construction of the pipes. For this meter ? inch pipe connected by couplings of pipes with a diameter of ? inch bolts for 10. The attachment points should be pre-drilled holes. The drilling process comes to the appearance of wet sand, which will drain to the surface of the drill. All further drilling is pointless because the wet sand will go back into the hole.

Hammering the pipe with filter

Sections of pipe with a filter connected by means of couplings, not forgetting to thread wrapped around a tape FUM. The resulting structure of the pipes with a filter is lowered to the sand, and on top of it is screwed coupler is made of cast iron. In a cast iron coupling to fit the pancakes from the rod. Through their center is passed the axis on which the pancakes will slide out, clogging the pipe. The axis consists of a 1.5 meter piece of pipe with a diameter of ? inch bolt on the end.

Finished bore needle

Ready well the needle does not occupy much space and does not spoil the appearance of the area: if desired, you can decorate the canopy is very desirable to build around the platform of concrete

With each stroke of the pancake pipe must be immersed a few inches. When half a meter from the sand level will be passed, you can try to pour into the pipe a little water. If the water disappears, then the sand took it. The aquifer sand is able to absorb water at the same rate as and give it.

Pumping wells are ready

Install the check valve, then a pump station. Use while HDPE pipe and ensure that the whole structure was sealed. In the superficial station, fill water, and a piece of hose connected to the exit. You can run the pump. Don’t be alarmed when out of the hole will come out the air, and then muddy water. As it should be. Soon to receive clean water, which you can see, making analysis or just boil it.

Abyssinian well in the garden

It looks like an Abyssinian well, if it was installed in the garden and supplied hand pump: cottager no longer depends on SNT irrigation time

Near the site of active water intake shall not be located gutters, or manure pits. A small area of concrete which was built around the well and positioned just above the surface of the soil, will ensure the outflow of rain water.

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