Few gardeners can resist the temptation to grow on his land wonderful Sunny berry – grape. After all, fruit vines, including grapes and successfully develop and produce fruit even in the middle lane. However, to get a good harvest, the plant needs to create favorable conditions. He needs space for growth, adequate lighting, water and, of course, the support for which the vine would cling to. Trellis for grapes prevents sagging vines, and performs other useful functions. For example, helps to create shadow where you need it, and simply adorns the site. Learn how to make such a useful design with their hands.
Traditionally the grapes are grown in the southern regions: here the plant does not need shelter in winter. In the South and the trellis is used not always. For example, in Central Asia and the middle East, the vines are simply placed on the surface of the soil. For America and Europe, the unsupported standard culture. Often in the Caucasus as a prop just use a large tree, around which are placed vine whip.
But with the development of technologies of cultivation of this berry, as well as with the improvement of methods of protection from frost, the plant was actively spreading North. Not the extra steel and legs that help keep the grapes power for abundant fruiting. The principles of the device of the support structure depends on several factors.
Of course, this young plant does not need a trellis, but is planted it must be given the fact that this design has enough space
- the planting schemes;
- varieties of plants;
- the technology used trimming.
Given these circumstances and select the appropriate trellis.
If the grapes are first planted on the site, you do not need to immediately use the stationary trellis, it is enough to construct the temporary supports. But with the installation of a stationary design to tighten is not recommended. In the third year from planting can be expected the first harvest. By this time, and the Bush itself should be fully formed, its root system reaches a fair size. If the construction of the tapestries to start in this period, it may have a negative impact on the plant.
It should be understood that the tapestry is not a temporary structure. It is set for years to come. So, the choice of the location for the vineyard should be treated responsibly. Find plot free territory is well illuminated by the sun. Rows of supports must be oriented in the direction of the server — South. This method allows to achieve a uniform illumination of the plants during the daylight hours.
These tapestries are a great example of how you can use the empty space between the rows. As you can see, it’s densely planted
The necessary space between the rows may not be less than 2 meters. If the site is small and we have the task as efficiently as possible to use all the space, aisles can be used, for example, for planting vegetables. That’s just the design of the trellis in this case, you should use a single plane.
Tapestries are of the following structures:
- single plane;
Bushes can be placed each in its support or in a row, when a few plants, focusing on a single support. You can build several rows, but it should be remembered that in the same row must be the bushes just the same. The different grape varieties often require different care, and when close to landing it can be difficult.
In addition to its main task – support of the vines, trellis can also perform a decorative function. It beautifies the area and creates a romantic atmosphere
Single-plane, this support is called because a plant, attached to it, will evolve in one plane. This kind of tapestries, too, is different, as we’ll discuss later. Each type of supports has its own advantages. Apparently they are a few posts between which a horizontally stretched wire.
To build odnoploskostnoy trellis do not need to buy many materials. Only a few poles and wire to create a secure base
This is a relatively low-cost design, which is easy to install. It the plant is well ventilated, nothing can prevent its cropping. The grapes are placed in the same plane, it is easy to hide for the winter. And between the rows of supports it is possible to grow vegetables or flowers.
However, a powerful plant with several branches, forming in one plane is problematic: there is a danger that the landing will be sagudats. In addition, the area of the trellis does not allow to place lots of vines.
To build a trellis for the grapes with your own hands, you will need the following material:
The posts can be of different materials. For example, steel, concrete, timber. The length of the posts depends on the height of future construction. For the infield is considered optimum height above ground is 2 meters, but in practice, there are tapestries and up to 3.5 meters.
You can use pillars of different materials: for this purpose, suitable metal, wood, and concrete. It is important that they were reliable because the facility would be operated for a long time
Wire is best to use galvanized steel, not copper or aluminum, because copper and aluminum products often become the prey of hunters for metals in winter, when the owners do not live in the country. Optimal wire thickness is 2-3 mm.
Odnoploskostnoy trellis need to line up in a row with an interval of 4-6 meters. Since the main load will fall on the beginning and end of the range for these poles select the strongest pillars. Additional reliability they attach to the wire stretching or the slopes, allowing you to redistribute the load.
Posts in the series can have a diameter of 7-10cm, but extreme support is better to make more massive. To dig into the ground they should be on depth not less than semimeter. If the material for the pillars selected tree, the places of contact of wood with soil must be protected. To do this, use 3-5% solution of copper sulfate, in which the posts should be cured for 10 days. This will prevent your design from rotting.
To handle the pillars with antiseptics or special impregnation is not recommended, as aggressive liquids can damage the roots of grapes. If the poles are metal, the lower part should be covered with bitumen, which protects the metal from corrosion.
When we choose the height of construction, it is necessary to note that on half-meter columns will be recessed into the ground, so their length should be equal to or greater than 2.5 m
The next stage of work – stretching wire. If there will be some, the bottom should be placed approximately 40cm from the ground. Bunches should not touch the ground, and under their weight the wire may be deformed, therefore, the recommended distance should not be ignored. The next row can be pulled at a distance of 35-40 cm from the previous one. Often, gardeners are limited to three ranks, although the trellis with four or five lines is considered the most effective.
The wire you need to fix as much as possible. Depending on the material of the pillars, for this purpose, suitable rings of wire, nails or staples of metal. Some of the nuances of the construction of flushed feet can be see from the video:
Consider several types of supports to choose the one that is ideally suited for your industry.
You can make a variant with double wire. A distinctive feature of this design is the method of fastening wire. At the extreme poles reinforce the cross member, between which and pull the wire. Thus, along the same plane to create a corridor, a wire which is stretched from left and right.
Here can be schematically represented design odnoploskostnoy trellis with a visor. The existence of the canopy allows to increase the effective bearing area without increasing the height
Another option is trellis with a visor. Vertical trellis gets a sequel, directed to the side. Him stretched an extra few wires. With this design the usable area ventilation and lighting is increased, and the care of grapes becomes easier.
Trellis with a double wire, like any other design also has its adherents. The choice of the model of support always depends on the specific conditions of its subsequent operation
Also popular are T-shaped model. The height of the supports for this model does not exceed 150 cm Wire they fixed in pairs: two rows on the upper ledges of the trellis to the right and to the left with a distance of 50cm and two rows on the bottom, also the sides – 25 cm gap.
The advantages of the model is that the young shoots do not need to be tied up: they are inside of the corridor and clinging to self-reliance.
Finally, the last option is trellis with the hanging gains. In this design the garter of the trunk is made to the supports. Growth hanging down.
Growth is at the top with several rows of wire, placed horizontally
If a vine to shelter for the winter, it is best to use a tunnel method. To do this, through the lower wire throws a protective film or roofing felt, forming a kind of protective niche.
Single-plane design are used mainly for covering grape varieties, because to cover a vine on a trellis simply tunneling method
If you cover the grapes is planned by a slate or boxes, the better the posts are initially shifted relative to the base of the vines is 40 cm Then the roots will suffer less when digging post holes, and cover the plants it will be easier.
Two-plane support for the vines, too, can be set in various ways. To make a suitable support for a country grapes with your own hands, you need to have an idea about all possible options, then to select the best.
This two-plane trellis, which is designed to pokrivenik grapes and allows you to grow powerful enough abundantly fruiting plants
Support in two planes are:
- Direct. The structure comprises two parallel planes located next to each other.
- V-shaped. Those two planes are inclined at an angle to each other.
- Y-shaped. The lower part of the structure is a single plane, and then plane diverge at an angle of 45-60 degrees to each other.
- Y-shaped growth that hangs. The design is similar to the single-plane model with a visor, only visors available to each of the planes, they are directed to the side opposite to the Central axis. The basis of the structure — Y-shaped.
Thanks to more powerful designs on these pillars it is possible to grow varieties with active growth. As a result, the yield per unit area increases. The design allows the clusters to be in the shelter and not to suffer from the direct rays of the sun or from the wind.
This Y-shaped design is very popular for the successful combination of the advantages of one – and two-plane trellis: it is well ventilated and illuminated, allowing you to keep a extensive powerful plants
Of course, this construction is more difficult in single plane. And materials will need almost twice as much. In addition, to mount it, not so easy. And used this design mainly for pokrivenik varieties.
What does grape prop plane, you can see from the video:
The consumption of the material produced is based on the three-meter single row trellis. If you want, you can do a few rows, respectively, increasing the amount of material.
So, we need:
- 4 of metal pipe of 2.5 meters each;
- crushed stone and cement;
- 30 meters of wire;
- wooden stakes for marking;
- chalk and tape measure.
The length of our buildings is 3 meters and the width is 80cm. Draw a rectangle in the selected vineyard site. In its corners, drive pegs. In the place where we can find the pegs, you need to dig the pit. The width of each pit is 30cm and the depth is 40-50cm. In the resulting pit insert pipe, and the bottom part treated with bitumen.
The result of our work should be such that the V-shaped design. Its construction lasted approximately twice as many materials than odnoploskostnoy trellis
It turns out that the design base distance between the tubes is 80 cm Upper ends dissolve at 120cm from each other. Fix the position of the pipe with gravel, then fill the pits in the diluted cement. To continue working only after the cement hardens completely.
You can now pull the wire. The bottom string should be located at a distance of 50-60 cm from the surface of the earth. If it is assumed that the bunches of grapes are very large, the distance from the soil can be increased. The remaining rows should be spaced 40-50cm. Secure the wire by using special hooks. Not only is it aesthetically pleasing, and securely.
If the pillars are made of wood, very convenient to use such attachment for wire: they help to extend the wire a lifetime
If the area will be grown Neutralny varieties of grapes can be used for these purposes bowline decorative pillars, arched, Cup-shaped and other decorative types. You can make them from various materials, but the easiest wood.
Decorative trellis with grapes can create shade just where you need it. But we need to wait until the grapes grow
How to make a trellis, you can see from the video:
Of all the in this article designs tapestries difficult to single out one to call her the most convenient and reliable. Each option has its own supporters. The choice depends on many factors, and do you have your own. I hope that we have provided you with enough information to ensure that it was unmistakable. Construct the trellis with your hands, and the grapes will delight you with an abundant harvest for many years.