Work on the beautification just boughtsection I decided to start with a plan and device garden paths. In the hands of the project I already had created a landscape designer. The plan, in addition to buildings and plants have been designated curved paths leading to all "strategic" areas of the facility. As selected paving concrete blocks - durable material and, at the same time capable of providing a decorative surface.
To the device tracks I started alone,because I have a strong belief that the construction crews, even professional, often well enough prepared "cushion" under the paving stones. Then tile bends, drops ... I decided to do everything yourself, to precisely comply with all the rules of the paving. Now, when my tracks are ready, I decided to share my experience of building, by providing detailed photo.
The tracks of the paving stones have a complex, multi-layered structure. I decided to use a sequence of layers (bottom-up):
- coarse sand 10 cm;
- gravel 10 cm;
- Granite screenings 5 cm;
- concrete pavers.
Thus, in my cake geotextile layer 3 is used - to separate the layers of gravel and sand. Instead gartsovki under the paving stones, I applied small granite screenings (0-5 mm).
I will try to explain step by step technique that I used when creating tracks.
Tracks I bent, so the usual ropeand pegs, as recommended in the literature for the markup, use problematic. The yield was simple. To form the need to use something flexible, for me turned out to be a suitable marking materials rubber hose. With him, I formed the outline of one side of the track.
When I applied to the hose, and a flat railshovel to mark up the second side of the track. Then "gnaw" shovel on both sides of the track pieces of turf cubes, they served as a reference for future digging trenches.
Cutting the turf along the contours of the tracks
On digging trenches took a few days, at the same time2 had to uproot the stump and currant bush that had the misfortune to have appeared in the way of the future track. The depth of the trench turned out about 35 cm. Since the site I did not perfectly flat, a holding trench level used optical level.
Dig a trench
At the bottom of the trench and I laid geotextileDupont. Technology is as follows: cut a piece from the roll on the track width and laid in a trench. Later the edge of the material to be cut and covered with earth.
Geotextile performs a very significant function. It protects the road cake layers from mixing. In this case, the sand will not geotextile (which it will be filled) leached into the soil.
Sand (major, career) was filled with a layer of 10 cm.
The process of filling sand on the laid layer of geotextile
To ensure the horizontal layer, to backfill the trench across I put several racks to a height of 10 cm in increments of about 2 m. Turned original beacons, on the level that I would fall asleep sand.
As it needed something to take away sandmound and align them on the racks, I had invented a device that plays the role of the construction rules, but on the handle. Anyway, I took the hoe, it fastened rail on the two screws, got universal equalizer for bulk layers. Lined.
But even out - not enough at the end of the layerIt should be as compacted, compacted. For this work, I had to buy an instrument - the electric vibration plate TSS-VP90E. At first I tried to tamp has not aligned sand layer, as the thought that the heavy plate and flat - everything will align itself. But it was not so. Tamper constantly strove to stall in the inclines of sand, it had to dismiss, postpone. But when the sand was leveled my modified hoe, the work went easier. Encountering obstacles vibrating plate moves easily, like clockwork.
Ram sand electric vibratory plates
Compactors, I walked across the sand layer several times, after each pass shed surface water. The sand became so dense that when I walked on it, traces of almost no choice.
When compaction sand need some time to shed water, so that it maximally compacted
On the sand, I put a second layer of geotextile.
Geotextile sand will not mix with the subsequent layer of gravel
Next, the plan goes geogrid over whichestablished border. Like all simple. But there is a catch. Kerbstones (height 20 cm, length 50 cm) straight and curved tracks. It turns out that the borders of tracks repeated line, they must be cut at an angle, and then join with each other. Cutting and trimming the ends I performed on an inexpensive stone-cutting machine, pre-measuring angles sipped electronic inclinometer.
All clipped curbs were put in a lineon the edges of paths, dock - almost perfect. It turned out that most of the stones were cut into pieces 20-30 cm, especially sharp turns going from pieces of 10 cm. The gaps between the stones in the final assembly will be 1-2 mm.
Fit curbs under the curvature of the track
Now, under the exposed borders must belay a geogrid. To re-splicing, and not to engage in re-setting a curb, a paint-spray lines I have outlined their location. Then I put the stones.
Location of stones indicated by paint
Cut pieces of geogrid and laid them on the bottomtrench. I - Net Tensar Triax, with triangular cells. Such cells are good because they are stable in all directions, can withstand the efforts made along, across, or diagonally. If the tracks are straight, there is no problem, you can use regular grid with square cells. They are stable in length and breadth, and diagonally stretched. I, with my paths are not suitable.
Over geogrids, I put curbs in place.
Laying geogrid and exhibiting kerbstones
It remains to put them on a solution tofix the position. This process has been complicated, as necessary to maintain altitude levels predefined in the site plan. Traditionally, the level of compliance is recommended to use cord (string). But this is only suitable for straight tracks. With curved lines difficult, here it is necessary to use builder's level, generally level and constantly checked against the project level.
The solution is the most common - sand, cement, water. Trowel applied solution to the right place, then it shrinks curbs, checked the altitude level. So I put all the stones on both sides of the tracks.
Fixing curbs on cement mortar M100
Another important clarification: every day after work it is necessary to wet the brush to wash the solution adhering to the sides and top of the stones. Otherwise, cleave and remove it already will be harder ruin the appearance of the track.
Next layer - 10 cm crushed stone. Note that the gravel for the construction of the tracks not used. It is round, so do not "work" as a single layer. Granite road metal, which is used for my tracks - is another matter. It has sharp edges which engage with each other. For the same reason, the track is suitable gravel gravel (ie, the same gravel but crushed, with ragged edges).
Purchased rubble of fraction 5-20 mm. If you use a fraction more, you can not put a second layer of geotextile and geogrid do the same. It will prevent the mixing of sand with gravel. But in my case there is such a fraction, as already laid geotextile.
So I razvez wheelbarrow gravel uniformly in allpaths, and then - leveled modified hoe. Since at this stage already installed curbs lining the rail to hoes I redid - cut at the ends of the grooves, which can rest on the curbs. The slots must be such that the bottom of the rack fell on the planned level of filling. Then, moving the rails by filling, it is possible to pull the layer, align it at the desired level.
Leveling layer of gravel rail carved with grooves
Rammed layer of vibratory plates.
On top of rubble - geotextiles. This is the third layer it necessary to prevent mixing of the next layer (dropouts) with gravel.
Laying of the third layer of geotextile
Most often, paving slabs laid on gartsovku - poor cement mixture, or on the coarse sand. I decided to apply for these purposes granite screening fraction 0-5 mm.
Bought screenings, sleep - all, like previouslayers. Bulk dropout thickness - 8 cm After laying the paving and compaction layer will be less -. Its planned final thickness of 5 cm data that tamped screenings will sit for 3 cm, obtained experimentally.. Another planarization layer, for example, sand, can give totally different shrinkage. Therefore, before you begin paving, it is desirable to conduct an experiment: put a small area paving paths, compacted it and see how much prosyadet dumping.
To equalize the dumping should be approached very carefully, using a leveling rail with slots under the planned height of the layer.
Filling drop-out and leveling of wooden slats
Height purchased pavers - 8 cm. According to the plan, it should be laid flush with the border. Begin laying need a central part of the track, close to the curbs starts trimming. When a complex pattern paving crop accounts for much. I again Sawed sett same on the machine, namuchalsya - a lot of time and effort goes. But it turned out beautifully!
sett paving technology is quite simple. In fact, you just need to drive a tile in the dumping mallet blows. At the same time dumping and compacted, and paving is fixed. Controlled level deck stretched cord or thread.
Start laying the pavers - a central part of the tracks
Drawing paths already seen, is to saw and install paving near curbs
I laid paving ramming vibratory plates, rubber gasket is not used - I do not.
That's the path turned out!
As a result, I have - beautiful rugged path, almost always dry and non-slip.