Few gardeners can resist the temptationgrow on their site wonderful sunny berries - grapes. After fruiting vines, which include grapes and successfully develop and bear fruit even in the middle lane. However, to get a good harvest, the plant is necessary to create favorable conditions. He needs space to grow, adequate lighting, water and, of course, the support for which the vine could cling. Tapestry for grapes prevents sagging vines and performs a number of other useful features. For example, it is helping to create the shadow where it is needed, and simply decorated with the site. Learn how to make a useful construct with their own hands.
Traditionally, the grapes are grown in the southern regions: here the plant does not need shelter in winter. In the south and trellises are not always used. For example, in Central Asia and the Middle East, just a vine on the soil surface. For America and Europe characterized reactionless stam culture. Often in the Caucasus as a support simply use a large tree, surrounded by grape vines and place.
But with the growing technology development of this berry,as well as with the improvement of methods of protection against frost, the plant has been actively spread to the north. Do not become redundant and support to help keep the grape power for abundant fruiting. The principles of the device support structure depend on several factors.
Of course, such a young plant needs no more trellis, but it should be planted since taking into account that this construction is enough room
- planting schemes;
- varieties of plants;
- used cutting technology.
In these circumstances, and pick the appropriate trellis.
If the grapes are planted for the first time at the site,not necessarily immediately use stationary trellis, will be enough to build temporary supports. But it is not recommended to delay the installation of the fixed structure. In the third year of planting the plants you can expect the first harvest. By this time, the bush and he must be fully formed, and its root system reaches a generously sized. If the construction of the trellis to start at this time, it can have a negative impact on the plant.
It should be understood that the tapestry - it is not temporaryconstruction. It is set for years to come. So, to the choice of place for a vineyard should be approached responsibly. Search on the site free territory, well-lit by the sun. Rows of pillars should be oriented in the direction of the server - south. This method makes it possible to achieve uniform illumination of the plants during the daylight hours.
These tapestries - a great example of how you can use the empty space between the rows. As you can see, it is densely planted
The required spacing between the rows may not beless than 2 meters. If the site is small, and our challenge is how to use all of its space efficiently as possible, aisles can be used, for example, for planting vegetables. That's just the design of the tapestry in which case you should use odnoploskostnaya.
Tapestries are the following structures:
Shrubs can be located at each of its supportor in series, where several plants are focused on one support. You can build several rows, but it should be remembered that in the same row should be only one brush grade. For different grape varieties often require different care, and when it is near the landing may be difficult.
In addition to its main task - support the vines, trellis can perform and a decorative function. She decorates the site and create a romantic atmosphere
Odnoploskostnaya this support called becauseplant, mounted on it, will be developed in the same plane. This kind of tapestries, too, is different, as we'll discuss a little later. Each species has its own advantages supports. Outwardly, they are a few pillars, between which a horizontally stretched wire.
To build a monoplanar trellis do not need to buy a lot of materials. Just a few poles and wires provide reliable support
This is a relatively inexpensive design thateasy to install. It is well ventilated plant, nothing will prevent him cutting. Grapes are placed in the same plane, it is easy to shelter for the winter. And between the pillars rows can grow vegetables or flowers.
However, powerful plants with a fewsleeveless, form problematic in the same plane: there is a danger that the landing will thicken. In addition, the trellis area is insufficient to accommodate a lot of vines.
To build a trellis for grapes with your hands, you will need the following material:
The pillars can be made of different materials. For example, steel, concrete, wood. From the length of the posts depends on the height of the future construction. For the infield is considered optimal height above the ground 2 meters, but in practice there are tapestries and up to 3.5 meters.
It is possible to use poles of different materials: for this purpose and suitable metal, and wood, and concrete. It is important that they are reliable, because the facility will be operated for a long time
The wire is best used fromgalvanized steel instead of copper or aluminum, because it was made of copper and aluminum products are most often hunted for metals in the winter, when the owners do not live in the country. The optimum thickness of the wire is about 2-3 mm.
Monoplanar trellis need to build in a row withinterval 4-6 meters. Since the main burden will fall on the beginning and end of the series, it is for these supports are choosing the strongest pillars. More reliable they will give wire stretching or slopes that allow to redistribute the load.
Columns in the series may have a diameter 7-10sm butextreme support better make massive. Dug into the ground, they should be at a depth of at least half a meter. If the material for the columns selected wood, wood with the ground contact is necessary to secure a place. For this purpose, 3-5% copper sulfate solution, in which the columns must be maintained for 10 days. This will protect your design from rotting.
Handle poles or antisepticsSpecial impregnation is not recommended as aggressive liquids can damage the roots of grapes. If the poles are metal, they should cover the lower part of the bitumen, which protects the metal from corrosion.
When we choose the design height, it is necessary to take into account that half a meter poles will be recessed into the ground, so their length should be equal to or greater than 2.5 m
The next stage of work - stringing wire. If the series is more, the lower should be positioned about 40cm from the ground. Grapes should not touch the ground, and under their weight of the wire may be deformed, therefore, the recommended distance is not to be ignored. The next series can span a distance of 35-40 cm from the previous one. Most gardeners are limited to three rows, although trellis with four or five rows considered to be the most effective.
The wire needs to be fixed as reliable as possible. Depending on the material of the pillars are suitable for this purpose, the rings of wire, nails or staples made of metal. Some nuances odnoploskostnoy support structures can be found in the video:
Consider several types of towers to choose the one that best fit is for your farm.
You can make a version with double wire. A distinctive feature of this design is the way of fastening the wire. On the extreme poles reinforce the cross between them and pull wire. Thus, along one plane created corridor, wherein the wire is stretched, and the right and left.
So you can imagine schematic design monoplanar trellis with a visor. The presence of the visor increases the useful footprint without increasing its height
Another option - a trellis with a visor. Vertical trellis gets a sequel, directed towards. In his stretch the extra few wires. With this design, useful area, the possibility of ventilation and lighting is increased, and for the grapes care becomes easier.
Tapestry with double wire, like any other design also has its adherents. Selecting support model always depends on the specific conditions of its subsequent operation
Also popular T-model. The height of support for this model does not exceed 150 cm wire attached to them in pairs, two series of projections on the upper right and left of the trellis distance 50cm and in two rows on the bottom, the sides, too - 25 cm gap...
Advantages of the model lies in the fact that the young shoots do not need to tie up: they are within the corridor and self-clinging.
Finally, the last option - a trellis with hanging growth. With this construction, garter trunk is made of reinforced. Growth hangs down.
Growth is on the top floor with several rows of wire, placed horizontally
If the vine shelter for the winter, it is best to use the tunnel method. To do this through the lower wire throws a protective film or roofing material, forming a kind of protective niche.
Odnoploskostnaya design is used mainly for a covering grape varieties, because the shelter vines on a trellis simply a tunnel method
If you plan on using the shelter grapesSlate or boxes, it is better to initially move the poles relative to the base of the vines is 40 cm. Then the roots will suffer less when digging holes under the posts, and the plant will be easier to conceal.
The two planes support for the vines can also beset in various ways. To make a suitable support for country of grapes with their hands, you need to have an idea about all the options available, then to choose the best.
This two-plane trellis, which is designed to neukryvnyh grape varieties and can be grown powerful enough abundantly fruiting plants
The supports are in two planes:
- Straight. The composition structure comprises two parallel plane adjacent to each other.
- V-shaped. Those two planes disposed obliquely - at an angle to each other.
- Y-shaped. The lower part of the structure is a single plane, the plane and then diverge at an angle of 45-60 degrees to each other.
- Y-shaped with a gain that is hanging. The design is similar to a visor monoplanar model with only visors are available from each of the planes, they are directed to the side opposite to the central axis. Base facilities - Y-shaped.
With a more powerful design on suchsupports have the opportunity to grow varieties with active growth. As a result, the yield per unit area increases. The design allows clusters of stay in the shelter and does not suffer from the direct rays of the sun or the wind.
This Y-shaped design is particularlypopular for its successful combination of the advantages of one-and two-plane trellis: it is well ventilated and illuminated, allowing to hold the powerful branched plant
Of course, this structure is more difficult odnoploskostnaya. And the materials it will need almost twice as much. In addition, mount it is not so easy. And this design is used mainly for neukryvnyh varieties.
How exactly do the two-plane grape support, you can see from the video:
Material consumption is produced based on a three-meter series of tapestries. If desired, you can make several rows, respectively, increasing the amount of spent material.
So, we need:
- 4 tubes of metal by 2.5 meters each;
- gravel and cement;
- 30 meters of wire;
- wooden stakes for marking;
- chalk and a tape measure.
The length of our facilities will be 3 meters, and width -80cm. Outline a rectangle in the selected vineyard site. In the corners vobem pegs. In the place where we are pegs to dig pits. The width of each hole - 30cm, and depth - 40-50cm. The resulting hole insert the tube, the lower part of which is treated with bitumen.
As is such a V-shaped design should get the results of our work. On its construction it took about twice as much material than monoplanar trellis
It turns out that the base structurethe distance between the pipes is 80 cm. The upper ends of their razvedёm at 120cm apart. We fix the position of the pipes with the help of gravel, then fill in the pit diluted cement. Continue to work only after the cement hardens completely.
Now you can pull the wire. The lowest string must be at a distance of 50-60 cm from the ground. If it is assumed that the grapes are very large, the distance from the soil can be increased. The remaining rows should be located with an interval 40-50cm. Wire can be secured by using special hooks. This is not only aesthetically pleasing, and that is reliable.
If the poles are made of wood, it is very convenient to use these brackets for wire: they help to extend the lifespan wire
If neukryvnyh will be grown on the plotgrapes can be used for this purpose decorative support bowline, arch, cup-shaped and other ornamental species. Can make them from different materials, but the easiest of the timber.
Decorative trellis with grape can create shade wherever it is needed. But we must wait until the grapes grows
How exactly do such a trellis, you can see from the video:
Of all the examples in this article constructionstapestries difficult to select one to call it the most convenient and reliable. Each option has its own supporters. The choice depends on many factors, and do you have it yourself. We hope that we have given you enough information so that he was infallible. Construct trellis with their hands, and the grapes will please you for many years abundant harvest.