- The solution to the problem of heating of a private house
- The principle of operation of the equipment long burning
- Varieties of designs
To the owners of private homes the problem of heating is particularly acute. Without it it is impossible, so the owners tend to pick the most convenient system consistent with the principles of savings and practicality.
Experience shows that to effectively manage in-house heating system operating by the circulation of the coolant in the branched system of pipes and radiators. Therefore, the key issue is the choice of heating boiler. Traditionally, owners prefer to install gas-fired boilers, but not in all regions it is an affordable source of heat. To heat the room due to the use of electricity – an expensive pleasure, and if you add the probability of shortages of supply, then the solution seems quite irrational. The way out of this situation would be the acquisition of the boiler long burning.
Based on the physico-chemical properties of the heat source, the specific design of the boiler long burning allows you to load wood with a minimum interval of 12 hours. Some models operate without any additional fuel material for several days. Retaining the ability to use the most available fuels – wood and coal, there are long burning boilers working on wood pellets, peat, «Eurogroup» or liquid fuel. So everyone can pick out the boiler model that allows to efficiently recycle the available fuel into heat energy for home.
A conventional furnace is based on the maintenance of the combustion process the flow of incoming outside air containing oxygen. The products of combustion in this design escapes into the flue system. It turns slightly contribute to the increase of heat and increase the efficiency of the furnace, but does not affect the growth of impact energy from a specific fuel source. To remedy the situation are long burning boilers, the principle of which is based on the properties of wood re-allocate during the combustion of gaseous fuels in a conventional furnace escapes into the atmosphere. The reaction of thermal decomposition of wood is called pyrolysis, and release a flammable substance other than pyrolysis gas. Therefore, the design of the boiler long burning provides technology for the process of open flame are reduced to a minimum. At the same time allocation of pyrolysis gas reach the maximum level, and it is the main source of heat.
Depending on the internal arrangement, relatively long burning boilers can be divided into the following types:
- solid fuel boilers are of horizontal form;
- pyrolysis of the structure;
- aggregates in the form of a vertically arranged cylinder;
Models run on wood, gained the most popularity. The usability championship is pyrolysis of the structure, this explains the high cost of equipment. When an instance of the boiler, where the heat generation is due to the use of compressed briquettes (pellets), be prepared for the high cost of fuel.
Name the solid hardware itself speaks of the possible sources of the boilers long burning. It can be:
Pleasant date of commencement of operation will be no need to obtain permits from regulatory agencies. The capacity of these boilers varies between 12-45 kW, enough to heat a private house of up to 120 mTwo.
Design features of the boiler are as follows:
- built-in fan ensures air injection;
- the control unit is responsible for regulating air flow;
- in most models of the boiler chamber load and the preliminary combustion at the top;
- after kindling fuel the air supplied to it in minimum quantities;
- the main heat exchange is carried out of the pyrolysis gases due to the operation of the circulation pump.
Some manufacturers produce boilers with long combustion chamber for afterburning, located at the rear of the structure. This ensures high efficiency of the equipment, amounting to 90-93%. At the exit into the chimney gases have a temperature of only 70-100onWith.
Among the disadvantages of long burning boiler with this arrangement it is noted:
- The need to regularly add fuel. Therefore, the long absence of the house is a big reason to abandon such models. The market offers a fully automated boilers, but then there are other difficulties.
- Electronic regulation of processes of operation of the boiler long burning associated with a complete reliance on electricity. Its absence leads to a complete shutdown of the process heating, private voltage fluctuations will cause incorrect operation of the automation of the boiler long burning.
However, the popularity of boilers of this design is obvious due to the low cost of fuel. For house area of 60 mTwo tons of peat is enough for two or three winters, and its cost is acceptable even for low-income owners of the boiler.
Pyrolysis boilers have a higher efficiency than solid fuel, although in their work they use a similar fuel peat, coal and other materials. The reason for the high performance lies in the special internal arrangement of the boiler:
- Adjustable air circulation is based on natural draft.
- Spacious loading chamber located below.
- Ash pan-the ash pit, on the principle of a classic furnace, installed below the combustion chamber of the boiler.
- After downloading and ignition of the fuel valve is left fully open to start the process of pyrolysis.
- The beginning of the selection of pyrolysis gas serves as a signal to close the valve and restrict the flow of oxygen in the combustion zone. After that, the fuel in the chamber is in the mode of decay, and in the upper part of the boiler, the heated air is connected to the pyrolysis gas, resulting in efficient catalysers.
A significant advantage of the design of the boilers long burning due to the use of pyrolysis gases is complete independence from availability of electricity. The installation of the boiler without the prior approval of regulatory organizations is another significant plus in the Treasury of the merits. Among the disadvantages – less power (enough to heat an area of 75 mTwo) and the inability to heat the room without radiators or convectors.
Interesting variety of long burning boiler are vertical units, produced by trademark «Stropuva». For their operation it is also necessary solid fuels, and high efficiency are achieved by the process post-combustion of the pyrolysis gas, but the internal structure is significantly different from the models previously described. The key point is the burning of fuel in the opposite direction – from the top down, while smoldering it is not all at the same time, and only a small top layer. For these boiler long burning used a variety of materials:
- extruded briquettes and other fuels.
Design features that provide such convenient operation, are the following:
- Download of the fuel material in the combustion chamber is through the window located just above the middle of the boiler long burning.
- Surface ignition is accomplished using a special furnace liquids having flammable properties.
- Start of combustion is accompanied by a lowering of the fuel mass air distributor for dosed supply of oxygen in the upper layer. Special channels provide uniform distribution of air masses over the entire area.
- Preheating of the air to build up an efficient pyrolysis process in the boiler long burning occurs in the upper part of the heating unit.
- After the end of the afterburning of the pyrolysis gases and residual elements of combustion out through the chimney.
- Heat transfer to the heating system is carried out by «water» shirt, which concluded the boiler long burning.
- For the regular cleaning actions from the ash deposits provided the audit window.
The efficiency of these designs formed the basis of numerous independent projects for the production of boilers long burning.
Innovative technology, through the introduction of the long process of burning, were given the chance to obtain solid fuel boilers of heating a second life. General advantages of the heating units are as follows:
- High efficiency, in some models it reaches 95%. Efficiency boilers competes with the gas counterparts.
- Environmental safety: when entering the boiler long burning into the atmosphere carbon dioxide and water vapours are readily absorbed by the plants.
- Independence from the presence of gas pipelines, the availability of fuel resources.
- No need of registration of permission documentation.
- Separate models of boilers long burning have a second loop that provides hot water. If desired, the heating unit can be equipped with indirect heating boiler.
- The long burning boilers do not require special skills in operation and designed for a long service life.
Advantages operation of boilers long burning accompanied by certain difficulties:
- the need periodically to produce a fuel;
- preventive steps for cleaning the unit from the accumulated ash mandatory for all boilers long burning;
- installing the solid fuel boiler is accompanied by a equipment and a separate room equipped with a chimney and high-quality ventilation;
Compliance manual for the boiler will allow a longer period to heat a house with a small cost of buying the fuel and, if desired, to obtain domestic hot water.