Heating and ventilation

Solar collector for water

Solar collector is a special device that absorbs solar energy and converts it into heat energy, and then it is transferred to the coolant. The easiest solar heater consists of a metal black plate, which is placed in a special plastic (glass) case, by which absorbed radiation of the sun.

Solar collector for water

Varieties of solar heaters ↑

Depending on the temperature to which the heated plate solar collectors are divided into:

  • Low-temperature
  • Medium temperature
  • High temperature

Low temperature heaters are characterized by a small rate electrical power. Thanks to them, water when heated rises to no more than 500 C. are Used for heating water in private houses.

Medium-temperature collectors can heat the water up to 800 C. They are used to heat buildings.

High temperature collectors are used for large enterprises, factories.

Solar collector for water

Collectors integrated type are:

  • Cumulative (thermosiphon)
  • Liquid
  • Air
  • Flat

The thermosiphon kind. Heats water and for a long time maintain its temperature. This reservoir no pump is efficient compared to other types. Cumulative header can consist of one tank, so several tanks of water. They are placed in a special insulating box. Tank is covered by a special glass plate through which water is heated. This water heater is easy to maintain, is characterized by simplicity in operation. Thermosiphon solar collectors used for a summer shower.

Solar collector for water

Liquid look. The coolant in this manifold – liquid. In liquid heaters of the heat exchange system can be both closed and open, there are glazed and unglazed.

Aerial view. Much cheaper than liquid collectors. Not leak, will not freeze in winter.

Solar collector for water

Flat view. Visually similar to a flat box made of metal, inside it is placed a black plate that absorbs the sun’s energy. The box covered with insulation. Apply for heating the pool water, space heating.

Solar collector for water

Features of solar collectors for water heating ↑

To the most common form of solar collector, which is made by yourself, include the storage device. The peculiarity of this device lies in the fact that in a special tank placed on a platform (on the roof of a certain building) is filled with water, then throughout the day water is heated to a certain temperature (+40ºC) and can be used for domestic purposes.

Solar collector for water

Heated water to the place of destiny is directed by samolechenie, due to the natural changes in elevation. Cumulative type of solar generator is mainly used in the regeneration of a summer shower. If this system is refined, it can be used in DHW systems.

The work of solar collectors for water heating is on the principle of changes its density when heated, and as a result, the liquid rises up and pushes for further heating the colder water. In connection with this thermosiphon principle eliminates the need to apply additional alluvial software.

Components of solar collectors ↑

Solar collector for water

The solar collector consists of elements:

  • Radiator through which heat is removed from the diffuse solar energy
  • Storage element which saves compensates for the heated liquid
  • Avancuar, creating a permanent overpressure of the hydraulic system

In order to facilitate the mounting of a solar collector for water heating with his own hands, specialists advise to place radiators special wooden chest, which has a glass outer surface. In this case, the radiator is connected by a pipe. Outlet and inlet paths are assembled from thick pipes, and parallel connections are made from the thinner tubes.

Features mount the solar collector ↑

Solar collector for water

To solar water heater meet operational, consumer characteristics, experts recommend to follow the recommendations:

For correct, fast venting, the lower part of the heat exchanger should be equipped with special drain valves

Insulation of the pipeline, through which flows the heated fluid should be of high quality and reliable (recommended rewinding tubes, foam, polythene, cloth, paint with white paint)

If you want to improve the performance of the collectors, they are integrated into one hydraulic system

In the hydraulic system must include a valve, through which eliminates the circulation of coolant (if the temperature is suddenly reduced, valve overlap)

In order to keep the water heated to the necessary temperature indicators, used mixers, which is supplied heated water to the consumer device.

The stages of construction of solar collectors ↑

Solar collector for water

The construction of a solar collector for heating water includes the steps of:

Stage 1. For tentative calculations on the mount.

Stage 2. The chest mount for the radiator. In this case, use the plank of wood that have 120 mm width, 30 mm thickness. For the bottom use plywood (PCB), which is characterized by a more rigid ribs. The bottom of a chest carefully teploizolyatsiya foam (mineral wool) and covered with a sheet galvanizing.

Stage 3. The construction of the radiator (heat exchanger). Prepared 15 thin half-inch tubes at 1600 mm, 2 one-inch tube 700 mm. In thick tubes, drilled holes, perpendicular to which is connected a thin tube. Further, the construction is welded into one. The radiator is placed in the bin in galvanized sheet, secured with clamps of steel (metal strips). In order to improve termoobrabotannyj tubes of the heat exchanger and the bottom of the chest are painted with black paint. To reduce heat loss, all external elements are painted with white paint. Next to the walls of the chest set glass coating and thorough sealing.

Attention! The interval between the tubes and the glass should be 12 mm.

Stage 4. Mounting the drive. To drive any suitable sealed container, which is characterized by a volume of 150 l to 400 L. it is Possible to use a smaller capacity, but they must be interconnected.

Drive well teploizolyatsiya and placed in a preformed box out of plywood. The distance between the walls is filled with foam, mineral wool, sawdust.

Stage 5. Mount avancuar. For avancuar use any airtight container, with a volume of 40 L. It is equipped with vodopadami device (ball valve, which used in cistern).

Stage 6. The connection of all the components of the solar collector. Originally mounted avancuar and drive. Note that the volume of liquid in the storage tank must be below 0.8 m volume of water avancuar. The collector placed on the roof of the building. For this recommended to prefer South-facing, when placing takes into account the slope 35 to 45 degrees in the horizontal direction. Heat exchanger and drive must be located at a distance of not less than 0.7 m. Therefore, avancuar is located above the drive and the drive is above the collector. Then connect all hydraulic elements, and the system is connected to the water supply.

Step 7. The introduction of the system in operation. To fill the system with water using the bottom drain holes. Then the CWS system is connected to advancemenu and regulate the liquid level of the working. Checked the tightness of the device, after which it commissioned.

For more information about how to install a solar collector for water heating alone, you can see in the video

Thus, a solar collector for water is a special device that absorbs solar energy and directs it to the coolant. To mount the solar water heater independently you need to follow the stages of work.

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