Heating of a private house is one of the most important elements to create the dwelling is a comfortable and cozy atmosphere. The heating system consists of several interrelated elements, the most important of which is the coolant. Without it, the qualitative functioning of the whole heating system is impossible. In modern heating systems the most common coolant is water.
For the arrangement of heating in a private home it is best to enlist the support of qualified professionals. They will be able to correctly create the project, to procure necessary supplies and to carry out installation of heating supply equipment for your home. Of course, with the appropriate experience to carry out the installation of the heating system in your home you can own. To do this, you must know the device of a heating type and basic properties.
When installing heating equipment in a private home one of the most important requirements is the correct choice of type of system. What are the types of heating systems private homes there are?
Note that when building any type of heating system can be used one-pipe or two-pipe scheme. The most popular varieties of heating systems for private homes are:
- Electric heating;
There are alternative heating system. These include the hydro rigs, wind, solar panels and solar systems. For all the above variants of fuel there is only one type of coolant – water. That is, heating may be carried out using various means, but with constant and unchanged coolant. That is why each scheme of the heating system is equipped with a filter for liquid and a special sewer drain. Modern heating radiators, besides, are equipped with regulation valves controlling the flow of water, thereby establishing the optimum temperature in the rooms.
Autonomous heating system a private house can settle for one of two schemes:
A distinctive feature of one-pipe heating system (Fig. 1) is the presence of an electric pump. With this feature the water is supplied to the radiator (the device creates the required process pressure). The main advantage of single-pipe heating system is the compactness and simplicity of installation. However, the use of an electric pump to maintain the desired pressure in the pipes makes the operating system more costly.
Fig. 1 one-pipe heating circuit
Two-pipe heating private houses (Fig. 2) is a structure in which the hot water to the radiators is supplied at a higher line but the return line of the cooled liquid is much lower. In this system, the heating pipes should be placed under a certain bias. A distinctive feature of the double-pipe heating system is circulation of water through pipes under the influence of pressure generated by the surge tank. In this design, no pump fully electric system that greatly reduces the cost of operation.
Fig. 2 two-pipe heating circuit
Manifold heating system (Fig. 3) is designed in such a way that each radiator is available in the building, connect the individual tubes with a common manifold. That is, the radiators in the collector heating system has two pipes: one supplies the heated coolant, the other takes cold. The advantage of this scheme is the ability to adjust the temperature in each room separately. If some part of the system fails, its replacement can be carried out without disconnecting the entire house from heating. Manifold heating system is today the most progressive. The only disadvantage to become high consumption of pipes and the need for additional space for mounting the collector rack.
Fig. 3 collector heating system
The main element of modern systems of heating of private houses remains boiler. With it, a heat carrier and heat distribution throughout the house. Naturally, the best coolant for heating private house is water. This liquid filled heating pipes coming from the boiler. Circulating in them and the heated fluid gives up heat energy, warming the rooms of the house. Also in the heating system of a private house included pipelines and the heating equipment (radiators).
- Boiler – the main generator of heat, providing high-quality heating of the coolant (water) before its distribution on the radiators. The water is heated in the boiler by using various types of fuel (in the combustion process is allocated a certain amount of thermal energy). Type of heating boiler you need to choose in accordance with the conditions of the property, considering the most common fuels in the region. Another important factor when choosing a boiler are the climatic conditions and the total area of the house. Today the most acceptable for the equipment of the heating system in a private home is considered a gas boiler. He has the necessary environmental friendliness, reliability, simplicity, efficiency and security;
- Pipelines – functional elements connecting the boiler with the radiators, helping to deliver to the radiators heated fluid. Today, manufacturers offer a wide range of pipes for high-quality equipment of the heating system in a private home. The most popular are the pipelines of steel, copper and plastic pipes for heating systems. The disadvantage of steel pipes of heating can be called the complexity of the installation (they are in the process of Assembly of the heating system it is necessary to weld to each other) and strong susceptibility to corrosion. Of course, you can purchase galvanized steel pipe, but due to the large weight of the mounting will be difficult. Now in private homes for heating systems and equipment are increasingly using pipelines made of polymeric plastic materials. Especially popular are metal pipes which are based on aluminum material, and the top has a thin plastic coating;
- Heating devices is the traditional radiators that emit the desired amount of thermal energy to heat homes. These devices can be divided into several types: classic water radiators, infrared heaters, radiators, convection type (having ribbed shape). Each heating device has a number of sections. The more, the stronger will be the heating of the room. Of course, radiators with a large number of segments are designed for heating homes with a large area.
The heating water boiler
Systems of water heating of private houses more often – closed (closed). In them the fluid circulates through the loop scheme and topped up her account very rarely.
At the present stage, experts recommend to equip two-pipe heating system of a private house. (Scheme 1).
Scheme 1: two-pipe heating system
As seen in the picture, this circuit consists of two circuits of closed type. One path distributes heated in the boiler water on the radiators (batteries) heating. When the coolant cools, it returns through the pipes back to a Central boiler where it is heated again. The advantage of water heating system is a parallel arrangement of radiators in all rooms. They allow simultaneously to heat the air in the house.
The reason for the demand and popularity of water heating system in a private house is its smooth operation. Indeed, for heating water in the radiators you can use a variety of fuels (gas, solid fuel). In the arrangement of the electric heating system of a private home uninterrupted operation difficult to achieve. Electricity may be off and the heating system will cease to function.
To water heating system functioned properly and harmoniously, experts recommend to withstand the maximum height between an outlet and the highest point of the heating structure. The heating boiler it is better to install in a basement or hole in the room.
Another important component of this type of heating system is the expansion tank. Its main function is creating the maximum possible pressure in the system (so the fluid could circulate through the pipes). The basis of this reservoir lies the principle of gravity, so it is advisable to place this element as high as possible. The higher will be the reservoir, the greater will be the pressure in the pipes the better it will be for him to circulate the heated water. A good place to install a tank heating system would be the attic.
Systems of water heating of private homes with the surge tank is generally considered open. Closed heating system of a private house can also have the expansion tank, but it has nothing to do with the outside world (it is impossible to pump out the water or add the missing liquid). If the heating system is equipped with such a tank, it must be a compensation tank (extra reservoir of small size inside which there is a special membrane, to regulate the pressure in the system). In closed heating systems the heat carrier can be not only water but also other liquids (Tosol).
Before carrying out installation of heating system in a private house, you must decide what would be the best option for your stay. The optimal solution is to install a heating system that uses the most economical and acceptable for your region and type of energy source. For example, if your house is supplied with gas, the most viable option for the heating system is water (the main source of energy which is gas boiler). If you allow the financial capabilities and the area of the house, you can install additional heating system with electric or solid-fuel boiler (it will serve as a back-up option and will allow you to heat the house regardless of the availability of a specific fuel resource).
The next stage – preparation of project documentation, which includes all the calculations (necessary for a quality installation). The project office will help you prepare all the necessary drawings and diagrams of heating of a private house. Once the heating system design of private homes completed, you can go to the market for the need for mounting materials.
At the initial stage of installation work is installing the boiler. If it is not electric, be sure to organize individual boiler (this will prevent ingress of combustion products in your home). In the boiler room must be equipped with a good ventilation system. The surface around the boiler (walls, floor, ceiling) need to trim the refractory materials, as well as to make a chimney of this design on the street. The boiler should not stand too close to the walls of the boiler house (Photo 1).
Photo 1. Boiler
Next you need to set the header (if it is marked in the scheme of the heating system), circulating pump (if necessary monitor the water pressure in the pipes and no surge tank), other devices for regulating and measuring the functionality of the boiler.
Next, you must equip the pipeline (Photo 2). These elements must move away from the boiler and sent to the radiators. Usually for holding piping to the house in the walls of the apertures of the required diameter, and then strip those elements of the heating system vents are sealed with cement mortar.
Photo 2. Pipeline
The installation of radiators (3) is carried out in the last turn. For installation using special mounting brackets. Typically, these elements of the heating system installed under the window. The radiator is equipped with two holes (for entry and exit of liquid). Some of them need to install temperature sensors and shut-off and adjusting fittings. The first run of the heating system after installation should preferably take place in the presence of a specialist of gas service.
Photo 3. Radiator
When choosing a heating system for private homes need to consider several factors:
- The most appropriate for your region of the energy source;
- Equipment, independent heating system in the event of unforeseen circumstances;
- Given the climatic conditions of the area;
- Accounting common area of the house.
To perform self installation of the heating system in a private home is not recommended, this should be handled by professionals.