The construction of wooden bridges and piers is always organized with the aim of ensuring convenient and safe access to the water. Over time the methods of construction of these surface facilities, adding new technologies based on the use of modern building materials. Now you can choose to build a wooden pier on a pile Foundation, which will serve not one year, or to build for a couple of days the pontoon design for seasonal use. On the choice of design of the pier and method of its construction is influenced by the characteristics of the soil in the coastal zone of the reservoir, topography of the shoreline, the velocity of the river and also the load created in the spring melting ice shell. The dimensions of the structures depend on its purpose and usage.
The Marina and moorings can be used for swimming and sunbathing, mooring small boats (rowing and motor boats, catamarans, water motorcycles, boats), a romantic getaway on the water in the gazebo, installed directly on wood flooring.
The shore of the reservoir, equipped with special devices for mooring boats and Parking, repair and maintenance, is called a pier. From the point of view of engineering the device data structures are divided into the following subtypes:
- the quay wall under construction along the shore of gabions and concrete products;
- pontoon pier, gets on a floating platform made of plastic barrels, pipes and special containers;
- the pier on wooden or metal screw piles, driven into or screwed into the bottom of the reservoir;
- pier — a pier, located perpendicular to the shoreline water body.
The design of the descent to the reservoir through the construction of jetties and berth increases the attractiveness of the vacation spot and provide the necessary level of security
In Russian villages, which stretches along the banks of large rivers, you can see the wooden piers for fishing boats, built on a pile Foundation. Previously, as piles used solid wood. Often in the course were larch, oak or alder logs. Currently, more preference is given to metal piles that can be driven and the screw. These types of piles differ from each other structure, and method of installation.
Driven piles made in the form of steel tubes, provided with a pointed tip. The soil data piles are hammered coprime (piling machinery). This method of installation can have a negative impact on the condition of the metal. The pile can «the story» and even to twist in a spiral. In such a case the deformation of the pile does not reach the layer of solid ground, and hence will not be able to be a full support for constructed pier. Not always the equipment can access the construction site of the berthing facilities. Therefore, when the device pile Foundation with his own hands using screw piles.
Screw pile as driven, made from metal pipe. Around its lower cone-shaped end is welded to a blade of a certain configuration, and at the other end — headroom necessary for mounting the foundations for the future of the pier. Because of this the blades of the screw piles are easily screwed to the bottom, it does not have to make too strenuous efforts. During a smooth rotation of the screw pile evenly is into the ground. The risk of deformation of the pipe walls is minimal. Length of screw piles may reach 11 m. optionally, the pipe may be increased or, conversely, truncated.
Installation of a wooden pier complex shape in the winter, significantly simplifies the maintenance work. Ice is easy to get to any place of construction
What a heavy load must withstand the pile, the greater must be the diameter of the barrel. In this matter, and the thickness of its walls.
Before beginning installation work it is necessary to calculate the exact number of piles to find the right diameter with the load. Calculate the minimum distance between adjacent piles in which the material of the raft Foundation will not SAG. The length of the piles is chosen based on the soil type and the depth of its freezing in this area.
After screwing screw piles at a certain depth into the cavity of the barrel poured concrete (mark M300 and above). This technique increases the bearing capacity of the support element. During installation of pile Foundation in winter, the concrete solution add special additives. By the way, the installation of piles for mooring it is preferable to winter. On ice it is much easier and cheaper to work than in water. If the soil is heterogeneous in structure, the piles are set at different depth, after which align at a predetermined level.
A schematic image of a wooden pier, built on pile foundations. Length of screw piles is determined by test drilling, during which you can learn the depth of the hard strata of soil
Screw piles are suitable for repeated use. They can be screwed and, if necessary, dismantling of surface design twist. However, pour concrete, the pile shaft is not recommended. To serve screw piles can several decades, especially if their surface is treated with a special chemical composition. This means that the pier, built on pile foundations, can be used for a long time.
Freestanding piles are United into a single structure using steel channel, welded to their ends. Sometimes as a bridge used timber. All welds need to be processed with a special compound made of epoxy resin, enamel or paint. This coating protects joints in moist environment, corrosion.
On the ground of the rock, the installation of pile Foundation it is impossible to produce. In this case, considered other versions of the device wharves and piers.
As materials used for laying the decking on the wharves and piers, apply a water-resistant wood of valuable species (larch, acacia, IPE, Cumaru, garapa, bankirai, massaranduba, merbau). Every variety of expensive wood has its own unique color and special texture. To reduce the cost of construction through the use of modern water-repellent polymer and wood-polymer materials on the basis of which are made special deck and decking. These materials are ideal for the construction of surface structures such as:
- not amenable to the process of decay and decomposition from moisture and precipitation;
- not subject to deformation, because it does not shrink, swell, bend and warp, not warp or crack (unlike many varieties of natural wood);
- capable of lossless decorative qualities to endure significant temperature changes, exposure to ultraviolet radiation;
- high resistance to abrasion;
- withstand high impact loads;
- features non-slip corrugated surface that allows to move safely on the pier during or after rain.
Polymer deck Board used for the installation of decking on the wharves and piers, does not need the protection of varnish and oil, which greatly simplifies the care for its surface.
Installation of hardwood flooring on a rigid frame fixed on piled foundations. Processing boards in protective compounds that protect them from premature wear
Installation of wooden flooring is carried out through the use of technology hidden fasteners. When finished dock install railing, slides into the water, and mooring fenders and other fixtures necessary for the operation of small vessels.
To build a small pier pontoon acquire wooden beams, planed boards, nails, screws, metal corners, 200 litre drums and ropes for their fastening. Square frame designs collected from the timber section of 100 to 50 mm on the shore. The length of a side of a square is equal to 2.5 meters. Frame is enhanced at the corners using wooden sticks, optional extra. The corners of the frame should be straight (90 degrees).
Structure, assembled from timber and sealed barrels, is an example of a simple pontoon type jetty that provides the approach to the pond
The buoyancy of the mooring is provided by four 200-liter barrels, previously used for storage of petroleum products. The barrel should be completely sealed. To ensure this requirement is applied around the tubes of sealant or silicone to prevent ingress inside tanks of water. For better attachment of barrel to frame structures use additional sticks (50 by 50 mm) that attach to the main frame using metal corners. In these bars drill hole through which stretch cords to secure the barrels, on both sides of the frame, parallel to each other.
Inverted frame, ready for launching, is transferred to the reservoir without flooring, which will weight her weight several times
Then the wooden frame of rectangular shape is inverted, while the barrels are on the bottom of the structure. In this position the structure is mounted in the water near the shore. For mounting, use of the anchor system. You can also tie the design to the pile, screwed into the ground on the waterfront, or post embedded in the ground and concreted. The last stage is nailed to the frame and a flooring of planed boards. Also constructed a small bridge providing access to the dock from shore.
The final appearance of the pontoon pier, used during the summer period. With the onset of cold weather, the surface structure is disassembled and removed for storage until the next season
Of truck tires, spent his time, erect columns. For this rubber tyres together with ropes or wire ropes. Then the associated bus roll into the water and place on the bottom of the reservoir. Makeshift bars should stick out of the water. Stability of pillars in the water is provided by river rocks and throws inside of the tires. Then, on erected poles install wooden walkways.
Simple surface structures, the owner of the site overlooking the river or lake, can build their own. Piers, stretching a few meters from the shore deep into the pond should build a company with competent experts and professional equipment. If you save on the design and construction of the pier, inviting questionable firms to perform work, it is possible «to lose» surface construction. It will just float from the shore. How do you release mooring facilities on the site, look in the video.