plant Encyclopedia

How to grow spruce: planting techniques and care, the survey methods of reproduction

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Spruce in landscape design

For starters, we offer you to see the video - maybe you will find answers to your questions there:

Let's start with the fact that all sorts of varieties of spruce - a wonderful material for forming the suburban area of ​​style, which is why when choosing planting material should pay attention to the coniferous sorts.

Through thick beautiful crown shape which can be adjusted depending on the purpose, high and low spruce successfully used for the preparation of such compositions as:

  • rockery;
  • hedges;
  • topiary;
  • single and group planting.

The combination of low conifers neatlyshaped canopy, stone decoration of natural materials for decorating the territory and in the regular and natural style, for rockeries with spruce as a key element is very popular.

Rockery with spruce

Rocard still good because demandsmall investment with maximum aesthetic effect: practically all plants can be grown with their own hands, and the stones to find directly at the house, bring the river bank or from the quarry

Live Pine fence - a greatprotective element that can be planted on the perimeter or between two different functional zones. The tall, densely planted trees completely replace the fence and miniature ornamental plants adorn the area and create the natural atmosphere.

Live Pine fence

In this case, low but close to each other trees are planted more decorative than functional load - they rockeries zone separated from the rest of

With a small Christmas tree in the country, you cantrained in the art of topiary - to create lush spruce crown of geometric shape, spiral or other simple three-dimensional object. Here it is just one of the useful properties of conifers - slow growth (3-5 cm per year).

Topiary in the country

Start grasp the basics of topiary better with less complex shapes - cube, a pyramid or a ball, and then move on to more complex configurations such as spirals

Against the background of brick and wooden buildings and fenceslook beautiful group rarely planted fir trees of different heights, and a single high Christmas tree can become a center of recreation areas and an excellent background for gazebo partner (benches, garden decoration).

Christmas tree

Many specially planted spruce to celebrateChristmas and New Year in the countryside. Holiday spent in the fresh air, interesting and fun banal family feast, and the process of decorating trees with garlands and toys - a real magical ritual that children will remember for a lifetime

Methods of acquisition or reproduction of spruce

If you select spruce as a plantto decorate your site and even identify with a brand, you need to think about where you take it. The easiest way - to buy ready-made seedling in the nursery, but many are not looking for the easy way out and try to grow their own trees from seed or sprigs. There are those who believe the most hardy and strong specimens taken in the wild, that is dug in the forest.

Consider the nuances of each of the methods and a closer look at features of breeding spruce.

Buying seedlings in the nursery

If you already have a design project,and to implement it lacks only a few pine trees - you can quickly buy seedlings in the nursery. This is true, and if you need some rare, exotic variety that it is difficult or long to grow their own.

Seeds of conifers, like other plants, soldin pots of different size, depending on the plant. Planting Christmas tree in the ground, should be fully recovered com "native soil", so tree take root better and faster.

Fir tree from a nursery

Choosing a spruce in the nursery, consulta specialist in major growing factors that affect the size of an adult tree, its hardiness and endurance, lighting conditions, mode of irrigation, etc.

Buying sapling, pay attention to its viability, which is easily identified by the following characteristics:

  • fresh, shiny, not showered partially needles;
  • tender shoots of growth on the tips of the branches;
  • Of course, not deformed shape of the branches and trunk;
  • needles are not impressed rusty or whitish bloom;
  • when lightly pressed twigs bend but do not break.

Too small pot suggests that spruce dug specifically for sales and violated its root system.

Growing trees from seeds

If you have enough time for gardening,you can do the cultivation of different varieties of spruce seeds. The best are the species that grow in your area. Ripening time cones depends on the climate, but breeding is recommended to collect the late autumn.

Seeds spruce

Cones are stored in a cool dry place, protectedfrom wind and direct sunlight. Approximately 2.5-3 months before sowing the seeds are removed (they are called nuts) and subjected to stratification in order to increase the germination rate

To prepare the seedlings, seeds are keptday of clean water for half an hour pre-soak in low (0.5%) manganese solution. Then immersed in a container filled with wet sand prior to sowing, and stored in the cold - snow or refrigerator.

Sowing in sawdust

Sowing is carried out in mid-April, and it is better forthen use a greenhouse with sawdust. Sandy loam soil covered with a thin layer (1.5-2 cm) of sawdust, it laid the seeds sprinkled on top of the same layer of softwood sawdust - create conditions close naturally, but more comfortable for the growth of

If you decide to plant the seeds in open ground, will have to arrange extra protection. She may be a frame of twigs, which protects against the sharp wind, and a layer of x / cotton fabric.

In August, a kind of protection is removed, and instead make a shelter of a thick layer of dry leaves. Instead of open ground sometimes use boxes, but growing conditions remain the same.

Bedding

2, at least 3, the seedlings are planted inthe ground at intervals of 40-50 cm. Before landing too long or damaged roots must be removed, and the remaining for a short time to put in the compost solution

Take special care regimen: moderately moist soil (in the heat - an additional watering) and 3-year-old one-time feeding. As a fertilizer suitable mullein or 0.1 percent solution hydroponic diluted with water.

Dorosti seedlings lasts 3-4 years. All this time, they need to be loose, fertilize, irrigate about 1 time per week. Mandatory produce fertilizer in the spring, before bud swelling. Suitable mineral nutrient mixture:

  • manure - 450-500 g;
  • Potassium nitrate - 10-15 g;
  • superphosphate - 25-30 g

The whole was mixed, distributed in the soil around the seedling gently digged to a small depth (8.10 cm) and watered to the soil fertilizer absorbed.

Planting

After 6-7 years you will get Christmas trees ready for planting a permanent place. They are, as usual, planted in the early spring, keeping the root clod

How to grow a Christmas tree from the branches (cuttings)

For breeding of ornamental species usedcuttings. Twigs, cut in early spring (April) are rooted in the same year, later - only for the next year. Many prefer the August cuttings, when the shoots start to finish growth and lignificated, but there is also the winter method, which has been successfully used for all conifers, including for the firs.

We offer you a master class inwinter cuttings of spruce, which is home rooting seedlings with the possibility of further spring Bedding. Using clippers or shears cut the required number of lateral branches. Since the end of the cutting should be preserved "heel" - a piece of last year's wood. Most "pyatochku" will have to cut, to avoid rotting the wood.

Cutting needles

Needles from the bottom, close to the "heel", neatly cut with a knife, so they do not need and will prevent future development of roots

Many breeds of coniferous trees well do without additional stimulants, but spruce capricious in this regard and calls, especially in winter, special treatment.

Stimulating growth

The treated branches put into the vessel up to half filled with a solution of Alpin (4-6 drops per 200 mL of water) and maintained 12-14 hours

The material for the storage of the cuttings will sphagnum moss, which perfectly absorbs moisture.

Soak the moss

While cuttings gain strength in Alpin solution, prepare a protective 'jacket' for them - dry sphagnum moss soaked in clean water

Take the film and arranged her long ribbon on the table. Along the tape distribute thoroughly moistened sphagnum - he will play the role of a substrate for the cultivation of spruce cuttings.

Laying cuttings

Cuttings are laid out on the prepared base in the following order: first, every twig dipped in stimulating powder (for example, "Kornevin"), then the lower part is placed on the tape with moss

Fold foil in half so that the roots were pressed to the sphagnum moss and wrapped in foil, and the tops of cuttings - free.

film slide

Roll down film with distributed cuttings neatly into a roll, so it was quite tight, but not tight for the development of roots

The result was a kind of bouquet - in this form will be stored and softwood cuttings before the spring planting in the ground. To film is not untwisted, it must tie with string or rubber band to pull.

Storage of cuttings

A place to store the cuttings should be light andcool - storage room or veranda. If the country wooden windows with double glazing, the cuttings can be placed between the windows or hung from the side, hiding from direct sunlight

Winter cuttings well that the period of spring planting has already appeared small roots.

Planting cuttings

Rooted branches in April, can be planted in the garden - not to a permanent place, and in a pot or box for rearing. Ideal - a well-lit, ventilated greenhouses

For two years the seedlings take root and eventually get stronger, then it will be possible to plant them in the open field, for permanent growth.

Transplantation of forest trees

Hike in the forest of spruce over safely, if you remember a few simple rules:

  • digging up a tree in autumn or spring, when the soil is quite soft and moist;
  • if the transplant spruce summer, try to keep the root ball of the earth;
  • suitable for transplantation instance is not greater than 1 m, maximum - 1.5 m; the larger the tree, the longer its roots, and the higher the probability that you will damage them;
  • more lush and strong Christmas trees grow on the edges of the forest, on the outskirts, away from the dense thickets.

It is important to dig fir. Around the trunk obkopayte circle with a diameter of a circle formed by the lowermost branches. The depth of grooves - about half a meter. Carefully remove the tree from the soil, trying to save the earth on the roots. Put it on a piece of thick fabric, wrap and secure the bundle resulting in a wheelbarrow. Grab a couple of buckets of "native" soil to fishbone caught on quickly in the new environment.

Fir tree from the forest

Do not forget one important caveat - before the pressing of the button is required to label the branches cardinal directions, north and south, to land a tree, focusing on their

How to plant spruce?

The trees, dug in the forest and seedlings purchasedhave common rules for landing. There are two periods when the spruce survives better - early spring and late fall (before the cold weather). Some varieties, such as blue spruce, is preferable to plant in the spring, so before you decide to plant spruce specify particular planting varieties that you have purchased.

Select the most suitable site forconiferous tree - sunny or lightly shaded. In advance take care of the drainage, because the spruce growing on wetlands, poorly developed and are losing needles. The ideal place to land - a sunny patch of a low overlying groundwater and fertile, humus-rich soil.

Spruce in the flower garden

Low decorative fir thrive in flower arrangements and rocky gardens, on a well-lit Alpine hills and in rockeries

The order of planting spruce following:

  • Dig a hole depth of 50-60 cm, 60 cm in diameter at the surface and 30-35 cm at the bottom.
  • Setting up the drainage of the 20-centimeter layer of a mixture of sand and crushed stone (or gravel).
  • From the excavated soil, sand, peat and humus soil mixture cook (in equal parts). Adding it to 100-150 g of NPK.
  • Partially fill the hole with a mixture of soil, moistened.
  • Place the root ball in the hole seedling.
  • We fall asleep vacancies remaining soil, alignment.

Spending peat mulch around the root collar, which is located on the ground level. Additional introduction of warm peat and roots retain moisture.

Mulching ate

Wood mulch or peat and attractive from an aesthetic point of view, moreover, entering the top layer of soil elements such as oak bark prevents weeds

Also important planting and care of spruce, so consider pruning rules, watering and protection from disease.

Features of care conifers

Watering is necessary depending on the firgrowing season and the age and size, but in any case always the ground around the tree to be slightly damp. You can check this by squeezing in his hand a lump of earth. If it falls apart - the watering time has come. Watering should be carefully distributing water around the entire root ball. The average consumption of water for the 2-meter-high trees - 1 10 liters once a week.

Young seedlings require special modes -several times a day in small portions, since the roots are at the surface and dries quickly. In addition to watering, and do not forget about the spraying, after which the sun will shine spruce shiny clean needles.

Watering spruce

If you do not have permanent residence in the country, choose to plant drought-resistant species, such as blue spruce. it is enough to pour in the hot period once a half to two weeks

Although spruce belongs to the slow-growing trees,from time to time it needs pruning. Preventive pruning is carried out once a year, in early spring, we have not yet begun to grow new shoots. It is also called sanitary, since removed mainly patients or dry branches. Easy thinning is beneficial to the whole sapling - the sun's rays penetrate deep into a thick crown.

The decorative trim on the contrary, carried out inmiddle of the summer, after the end of the growth of new shoots. Sometimes the top cut down if necessary to increase the width of the tree and not in height. The work is carried out with a sharp instrument, and the saw cut locations are treated with a special solution - potassium permanganate and garden pitch.

Pruning spruce

To remove the thick dead branches and stem, use a hand-held saws, smaller branches - gardening secateurs, and for decorative hairstyles - special shears

Often, herringbone and other conifers are threatening diseases. Common - fungal infections, leading to the crown falling and even death. Fight them you need a variety of methods.

To begin, remove the damaged needles anddiseased branches, then saturate the soil and treat Kornevinom Immunotsitofitom tree, amulets, zirconium or any other drugs that increase immunity. Some diseases such as root rot sponge or mottled, not amenable to treatment, so it is necessary to cut down a tree, uproot the stump and the surrounding soil thoroughly treat with fungicides.

Schutte on spruce

Symptoms of the disease Schütte - the appearance of red spots on the branches, and the crumbling yellowed needles. Schutte treated with drugs rather, Strobe, Falcon, Quadris from May until the end of summer

And finally - a few tips from professionals about the selection and cultivation of ornamental varieties.

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