We were lucky to be born and to live in a country in which there are excess water resources. Water, indeed, missing, and not all appreciate this important resource. It would seem, opened the tap and enjoy. But in our cities the quality of tap water is far from ideal. Another thing in the village to try well water. Absolutely each taste, such water can easily quench your thirst. And some crunchy pickles store up for the winter, if used well water!
In our villages, you can find two which is not far from each other well. In one take water only for irrigation, and the inhabitants of nearby houses. The second well, the water goes the whole village. Begin to question why it happened, and it turns out that in one place just drilled a hole where there should be aquifer. The water in the well is, but nobody is happy. And in another place were looking for water «antiquated» method – and in the morning to the well, a small queue going. Between wells in a straight line on the strength of 300 meters, one aquifer, and water quality are quite different. So where and how to look for a place under the well? And how to build the well at the dacha with his hands?
Signs of people can tell, whether close to the surface the aquifer lies:
- Water in the basement after the snow melts.
- Thick fog in places where there is bodies of water.
- The moss on the ground.
- The abundance of midges after sunset.
- Hot dry summer, the grass remains green.
- The pond nearby.
In omens can not believe it, and then help to choose a place to dig a well two of the known method. The first drilling. There is a geological map of the water resources. If your site is located on the supposed site of the aquifer, to water drillers it is sure to come. Only guarantee that it can be used for drinking and cooking, nobody will give you. You will need to pass the sample for analysis. However, even the positive conclusion of SES does not mean that you have a plot from the well will flow «delicious» water.
Another way to find a place for the well – dowsing. Before looking for this method the water by two willow twigs. Now use a brass wire of 2 mm diameter. Take two half-meter piece of wire, measure 10 cm for the handle and bend at a right angle. With such «devices» in each hand bypassed the station. Frames not in the hands tightly pinch, they should be free to spin. When they themselves start moving, it means water is close. Like a children’s game «hot – cold». Spun and crossed both the place for the well found. Despite the seeming simplicity of this method, it is better to water by the method of biolocation looking for an experienced person who found the place for one well. In any case, the cost of the biolocation method is a lot cheaper drilling.
You are lucky and in the area to find the place for «right» the well – water. A borehole is not necessary, water will fill the sump.
The well consists of three main parts: water tank, barrel and tip. In the sump (it is also called a reservoir) the water is collected and stored. The barrel protects the water showered from the soil. Now trunks made from concrete rings and form they are round, but before that consisted of logs and squares. The purpose of the cap – to protect the water from dirt and precipitation (which had no place in a single tank with well water), as well as from freezing.
Prepare to dig a pit would have to manually as it was done hundreds of years ago. Cooking tool: a bayonet shovel with a short handle (in the pit with the same handle digging easier), small crowbar, bucket, strong rope, with which these buckets will be your assistant to pull out the ladder on the depth of the pit and a flashlight. Choose a lantern that can be mounted on the head.
Start digging a hole under the pit size of 30 centimeters larger than the diameter of the ring. Deepen, taking out the ground just to the side. Closely monitoring the shedding of the walls. If the walls of the pit «keep» – all right, we continue to work until the water.
Drop ring and keep digging. The rings under his weight settle into the ground. After the installation of the first rings you want to bury another to a height of two.
With a strong shattering of the soil, this method threat. A swarm of meter-deep pit and drop the first ring. Continue to remove the soil and to deepen the pit. Then put the second ring and continue to dig. And so on to achieve the desired depth of the barrel. Water and dirt out of the hole it is necessary to pump mud pump or pull out the buckets. After the appearance of the water (it then begins the most difficult stage of the work) it is necessary to dig for another couple of meters deep. Try as much as possible to choose the soil with those last meters.
Here we come «to the bottom». Left to scoop the dirt and to seal the joints between the rings. The joints make clay mortar, or paving hemp (as an option – tarred rope) and cover the cement composition. Wall rings attach between the brackets and painted with oil paint. At the bottom poured a layer of gravel 10 centimeters – it will serve as a natural filter.
It was the turn device otmostki around the well. Arrange blind area of concrete, clay or so-called a soft deck. Remember that the deck should be, otherwise in the spring when the swelling of the ground dirt falls into the barrel the well.
Traditionally, the pavement is made from clay (clay castle). Around the rings otkatyvaetsya the soil to a depth of 2 meters, and in its place filled with clay. The clay must be carefully compacted. On top of the clay lock protect layer of gravel or sand. Three years will occur in the subsidence of the rings (shrinkage), and the clay layer will have in the spring to RAM. The quality of pavement is tested for the purity of the water in the well.
A soft deck, throwing sand and waterproof film. To a depth slightly more than the depth of freezing of soil is the earth and then filled with sand. The sand is compacted, then covered by film. The edge of the waterproofing membrane is transmitted to the top ring of the barrel of the well, carefully pressed and fixed by a metal band. A layer of sand covered with gravel, decorative stone, planted lawn grass.
The most pleasant and creative phase of work – the device of headroom. Of course, you can limit the downed box from boards, which can protect the water from dirt and precipitation. But it is unlikely that such «house» complement your site. Yes, and your efforts should be rewarded adequately beautiful completion. In stores you can buy cute ready «houses» for the end walls of wood, metal, plastic. As they say, for every taste and budget. However, that can compare with the creative process? To come up with an original design and to implement. It’s not the dirt to bail out of a deep hole!
Wells in the Russian villages is traditionally made as a log. But you can come up with another solution for registration of headroom. This well decorate your country site and reward after hard work and delicious cold well water.