The installation and Assembly of electrical switchboards is a complicated job that requires precise sequence, where each action is important and does not tolerate disregard.
The main qualities device safety and usability.
The purpose of the switchboard:
- metering of electricity;
- chain management;
- circuit protection against fire due to overload.
Install an electrical panel in the house, apartment or Villa own is possible, but this needs to possess basic knowledge and skills of an electrician.
Man is far from electricity, it is better to start to design the Board, when fully prepared the wiring and the wires connected to the future site of the electrical panel. First you need to make drawings for the work and to pick up appropriate accessories.
A complete list of consumers. It needs not to consider devices like a fan or table lamp, and record and number each connected to the shield wire. Sockets need to record separately coverage separately. Devices of high power (boilers, washing machines, air conditioners, electric stoves) require protect the wiring from overload, so connected via the junction box but directly to the shield.
The list of consumers for two-bedroom apartment usually looks like this:
- living room;
- entrance hall and corridor.
- Washing machine;
- air conditioning;
- living room;
- kitchen, bathroom;
- entrance, hallway.
All consumers are divided into groups (chains) in accordance with a power consumption: sockets for household appliances in the same room like iron, lamps, TVs and other can be combined into one group (sockets in one room — one group, to another — another), lighting — next, also in the rooms. Each group is allocated its own circuit breaker (or simply machine) is on the flap, and devices increased capacity washing machine, boiler, electric, air conditioner — your allocated separately for each. The machines can also be called a fuse or a batchfile.
Then the list is converted to a table, where are the values of the machines and ouzo.
The electrical panel consists of the case — metal or plastic box with modules inside. Module — a component in one setup «place» (in the same DIN-rail). Some devices can take two, even three «places».
For clarity, you should create a scheme which will meet the shield.
Examples of arrangements of the shield 220:
- opening machine;
- the electric meter;
- RCD (residual current device);
- grounding busbar;
- «zero» bus;
- machines sockets for devices high-power 25 A;
- automatic gruppensieg for appliances of low and medium power 25 A;
- automatic lighting 16 A;
- L — phase;
- N is zero;
- RE — grounding.
For each house or apartment will have its own scheme in accordance with the preferences of the owners.
The position on the wall Board can be of two types:
- interior — recessed into the wall, slightly protruding;
- exterior — the body is not buried, but simply mounted on the wall.
If the wiring in the house is hidden inside the walls, it is more appropriate inner shield. He’s smaller, and not particularly conspicuous, as appears from the wall is minimal.To install such a shield, you must first prepare it for a niche in the wall. The wall thickness should be appropriate.
If the transaction goes over the walls and the outer shield, not requiring preliminary preparation of the site. It is sufficient to attach the housing to the wall with screws or dowel-nails.
The outer switch Board can be installed inside the home and in the yard on a pole.
It is better to choose a proven case of European firms with removable walls. It is desirable that the DIN rail is also easily removed or moved. Do not take cheap housing: they are made of poor quality plastic which dries quickly and becomes brittle, not a lot of smoke and self-extinguishing when ignited. A good case ready for wiring inside, cheap will have to be retrofitted.
A modular device
After you install the enclosure you need to pick up machine guns, UZO, differential automatic (machine and ouzo in one), counter, contactor and other devices. DIN rail can be installed and additional modular Jack, tires, power supplies, control devices.
When choosing modules you need to consider the following options:
- rated current;
- the response speed of the machines;
- shutdown current machines, differential automatic, RCD;
- permissible switching frequency for contactors.
Machines are chosen separately for each circuit so that the system was balanced. So, if for devices of higher power to allocate slot 6-10 And the last will turn off automatically, not giving technique to work and, conversely, overly powerful machine, set for low-power consumer, will not protect the wiring from overload. For lighting of machines are used for 6-10 And normal household outlets, boilers, air conditioners, washing machines 16 A, electric stoves 20-25 A. Introduction the machine is needed for 32-60 And, depending on the total amperage of all the consumers of the object.
In the event of a power surge circuit must be switched off independently, better in a row «from downstream to upstream», that gives you the opportunity not to shut down the entire house in case of failure and easier to detect them. Therefore, machines equipped with «setpoint» time of operation: first, turn off the lower (0.1), then the parent (0.5).
Good ouzo — the rated current is above the total current of subordinate machines. So, when you first jump off the machines, preventing damage to the RCD. For machine 16 And is ouzo And 20-25, automatic electric stoves 25 And requires RCD 40 A.
An integral element of the system bus are zero and grounding — copper strap with holes where the wires are inserted and clamped by the bolt. The strap is placed on the dielectric insulator, which is mounted on a DIN rail.
Assembling and connecting
Assembling and connecting the electrical panel requires strict compliance with safety regulations!Modules in the body of the shield is better positioned according to the scheme drawn up.
Order of work:
- set 35 mm DIN-rail for counter machines, tires and zero ground;
- installed machines, ouzo and two buses, which connect the zero and ground wires. Opening machine, to which is supplied the power cord of the entire system to be installed first in the upper left corner of the case. For convenience, it is better to feed the cable to the machine from the top. The remaining case is the extra hole for cable feed shall be closed with plugs;
- connected opening machine depending on its type:
- two-pole is connected to phase and zero;
- for unipolar – only phase;
- in the panels on the 380 In for induction machine connected three-phase.
- Phase to the machine it is better to connect from the bottom for ease of installation of jumpers between slots upper;
- all machines and ouzo special copper bars isolated or normal wires of sufficient cross-section. The blue wire with zero lead-in cable is connected directly to the zero bus. Connecting ouzo and devastation to connect the zero to the bus with each separately;
- dissolve and connect the cables to the machines according to the scheme drawn up.Neutral wires are blue, phase red, ground — black-yellow.
Homes and offices are often equipped with switchboards 380 V. this shield is supplied as 4-or 5-wire cable: two or three phases, zero and earth.
Diagram of the shield 380 will be In such a plan:
Introduction to machine connect three phases, after which they go on the counter. Then the phases are on a shared machine, then the transaction is divided into single-phase lines for 220 volt appliances and equipment for three-phase 380 V. Tension between different phases is always At 380, and between zero and any phase — 220 V.
At the household outlet you should always apply zero and phase, 220 V. If you serve two phases, 380V, the technique will fail.
The ground wire always passes machines and iditot the ground bus to the outlet. The ground from the lead-in cable also goes directly to the bus. Zero connects with his bus directly if the socket is connected using conventional machines. If they are connected via a RCD or differential automatic zero passes through them.
At the end of the shield closed and it is energized.
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