For breeding cattle, you must create the appropriate conditions that will enable it to grow freely. This is especially true of cows that are the most common decision among farmers. But if previously they were built of dubious structures merely protection from the rain, the current requirements for the barn are slightly different.
Full barn must not only provide protection from rain and wind, but also to create a certain comfort for cows. On average, one cow it is recommended to allocate at least 20 cubic meters of free space, and for calf — two times less. The height of the walls should be more than 2.5 meters.
To determine the total size of the barn is based on the number of cows that will be contained in it. In General, the industrial options designed for 50-100 individuals, while large scales are equipped with additional buildings.
Every cow should have a stall, should be provided in food. Removal of waste is carried out by means of special equipment. In addition, the barn must be equipped with a system of life support. It includes the following items:
- Transportation of food;
- Cleaning waste.
And other. The barn is equipped with heating equipment. It is necessary in the case where the design of the building could not provide heat retention for keeping cows.
Also, you should pay attention to the possibility of walking of cows and milking in the barn. Milk is a key resource for cows, but the milking must purchase the appropriate equipment, which will automate and simplify this process. In addition, it increases its efficiency and allows less milk to contact the person.
All of these items are extremely important for compliance. It is necessary to provide for cows good conditions, and also automate some processes that will reduce costs for employees.
Feeding in the barn, can be performed by automatic systems or manually. Here the question concerns two things: the number of cows and type of food. It is impractical to use an automatic system if less than 40 cows. In addition, when you use hay it must derange manually, because automation is designed to feed.
However, the feed gives a great advantage in the care of the cows. It combines the necessary components for the life of the cow, and divided into many varieties depending on the used raw materials and additives. This will help to diversify power and cows provide all the necessary elements when the content in the barn.
In addition, the use of feed gives the opportunity to better calculate the food. Normalized results food can not only eliminate overfeeding, but also reduce the cost of feeding cows.
For automatic feeding devices called boxes — special units that are normalized to give food to the cow, determine its residue and counting diet per day. They are the ideal solution for automation of power.
For the removal of manure the floor in the stalls is done under a bias of 2-3 cm. This approach allows waste to drain independently into the chute from which they are removed. There are also options for manual or automatic removal.
For automatic removal of manure from the barn are used two systems:
The first option is recommended for tethered content. It is characterized by the fact that throughout the building are placed the pipe at an angle, they also placed caps on key nodes. The pipes coated with special compound to improve slip. When filling the pipe plugs are removed, after which all the manure is sent independently to the tank.
With the accumulation of manure in the aisles, it is recommended to use the Delta-scraper installation. It is presented in the form of angular scraper, which is set in motion by the power plant. Size clip fits the chute, which enters the manure in the barn. Periodically the scraper is set in motion, pushing all the waste in the tank.
Both options are quite effective, however, cemoplaf cheaper, and the Delta-scraper system is more resistant to low temperatures.
For the normal development of livestock in the barn need to make a quality light. In the light of day cows give more milk and calves feed better and grow faster. This issue is extremely relevant for the barn, which mostly neglect good lighting.
In the barn, it is recommended to do light day length of about 16 hours. Lighting should be in the range of 50-200 Suite that is easily achieved through industrial equipment.
For the barn it is recommended to use led lighting. It is the best choice, because it has lower power consumption, long time work and a lower heating temperature. Besides, their body is completely isolated, thus reducing the risk of getting moisture on the contacts.
Here should pay attention to the electrification of the barn. Although the General plan is created individually, there are special requirements to the transaction. It is important to ensure its isolation, to reduce the risk of ignition. It is worth remembering that a large amount of evaporation from manure is flammable and a small spark can cause a fire.
It is also important to consider a regular cleaning of the barn. You need to ensure the lighting and electrical network reliable protection from moisture. Although led devices there are no problems, the problem may occur in places of their connection.
For night time it is recommended to install lamps with red LEDs. This does not prevent the cows to sleep, but allows employees to perform their duties with sufficient lighting.
It is also important to pay attention to the climate. Due to the same fumes the air in the barn is getting heavy, the temperature rises. It is therefore important to provide an environment that will allow cows to be more productive.
The main caveat of the barn is ventilation. It is important to create a quality system that will create a constant flow of fresh air. Here are two possible options:
- Natural ventilation;
- Supply and exhaust.
The first option is a convenient solution that uses the flow of air for ventilation of the barn. The building is designed taking into account the free movement of air, creating points of entry and exit for ventilation. Is an economical and practical option that does not require much cost. But it has a significant drawback — the inability to control.
Air handling option in this regard is much better. It is a special device that is more suited for enclosed barns. Although she requires regular expenses on work and maintenance, it has the ability to customize and adjust power.
Also need to be concerned about the heating of the floor of the barn if the building is located in a cold region. To do this, use either electric water heating. The second option is more convenient because it is safe and economical solution.
It is worth remembering that you need to create the appropriate conditions in the barn in summer and in winter. In the summer you should take care of three things:
Need to provide better ventilation, and more to clean the gunk. In addition, the need to conduct faster milking that the milk is not spoiled. In winter it is necessary to consider only two points: space heating and lighting.
For a better understanding of the structure and devices of the barn, it is recommended to watch this video. Here are described many of the nuances of the cows in industrial purposes, which will allow you to avoid common mistakes: