- The arrangement of the sump
- The construction of the upper part of the toilet
- The ventilation of the toilet at the cottage
Toilet often becomes the first building erected in the country. The main reason for this is that to defecate in the street under the protection of the bushes to unpleasant and not comfortable. You can build a toilet at dacha with his own hands or to use the services of specialists.
If funds allow, you can build a Sewerage system with a cesspool. In this case there is the possibility to equip a normal toilet with toilet for cottages.
If your site is not possible to build a complete Sewerage system, then in that case you can choose one of the following types of toilets for cottages.
Toilet to pit latrine is the easiest and most common way to solve this problem at their summer cottage. This is equipped with a stationary toilet in a separate cabin-the cabin.
The disadvantages of this design in significant material costs for the construction and maintenance (regular cleaning using vacuum equipment).
Powder-closet — this kind of arrangement toilet rooms was circulated in the Soviet past and were used for shallow groundwater table (less than 2.5 meters). Powder-closet can be equipped in the dressing room of the dwelling or in a detached house. For waste collection in that the toilet is used a metal or plastic container. Its name he received because of the fact that with each use to reduce the characteristic smell of the contents of the waste tanks need to sprinkle sawdust, sand or peat «powder». The waste container should be regularly emptied using a vacuum truck or manually. Waste, interspersed with peat, is often used in compost pits.
The disadvantages of this type of toilet in the presence of an unpleasant smell and the need to stock enough material for dusting.
Replaced the powder-closet in our time has come toilets. The toilets sewage is also collected in a special tank where neytralizuya different ways. Depending on the method of sewage treatment toilets come in liquid, electrical or peat.
- Liquid toilets for cottages are quite mobile, easy to use, they can be transported in the car. Mostly this type of toilets are installed in the house. They consist of two parts: the upper tank for flushing, seat and pump, and lower where there is a reservoir for waste collection. The tank is filled a special formula that breaks down waste and partially neutralizes the unpleasant smell.
Disadvantages of liquid composting toilets: they require large amounts of water and, due to the small capacity, frequent emptying. In addition, the liquid for neutralizing the waste is toxic and itself has an unpleasant smell.
- Electric toilets for cottages appeared relatively recently. They are stationary and require connection to the mains, so they are equipped in the premises of the residential part of the Villa. The appearance of such a toilet like a normal toilet. The difference is only in design, located under the floor — there is a tank divided into 2 parts. In one collected liquid wastes, which are then excreted through the drainage system into a sinkhole or into the ground. In another part of the tank is collected and dried the solid excrements and toilet paper. When emptying this toilet, dried contents can be added to a compost pit.
Disadvantages of electric toilets:it requires a specially equipped room (if construction is necessary to provide a place for collections of waste, the drainage system and devices for cleaning of collections). It should also be equipped with special exhaust ventilation.
- Peat toilets (also called Finnish or compost) are also new products on the market. Arrange them in a specially equipped room in the accommodation or in a detached house. Their principle of operation is that after use, the excrement portion backfilled with milled peat. Peat absorbs the liquid fraction of the waste, which significantly increases the evaporation of the liquid through the ventilation system. In the peat mass active is competitice solid waste. Due to the large volume of the collection, this toilet for the garden need not be emptied frequently. Its contents can be poured into a compost pit.
To work around the problem with a toilet you can buy a bucket-toilet for cottages. Externally, the design is a little different from a regular bucket with a tight lid. For its installation does not require special equipment room, but you need to remember that the characteristic odor will be present in the room. After using the contents of the bucket-toilet sprinkled with peat, sawdust or even paper, in order to reduce the spread of odor, and tightly covered leak-proof lid. When filling the contents of the bucket are poured into the cesspool. The use of bucket-toilets for the garden can be viewed only as a temporary measure, until the equipment of the toilet of other type.
If you stopped your choice on the toilet with a cesspool, try to build it with their hands. It will not require large expenditures, but some construction skills will not prevent.
First you need to choose the right place for the future of the toilet:
- In order to avoid contamination of drinking water, toilet should be placed no closer than 25— 30 meters from wells, boreholes and water tanks. If a parcel has a natural slope, toilet in the country is placed below the water sources. The sump is not recommended to equip the if depth to groundwater is higher than 2.5 meters.
- Distance from dwellings to toilets should be at least 12 meters.
- When choosing a place should take into account the wind rose, the smell did not extend into the side of the house.
Picking a place to toilet in the country, do not forget to provide access for vacuum trucks. Sleeve length for pumping is 6-7 meters, of which 3 will be in the pit.
After the choice of location will determine the type of sump: with a filter bottom or sealed. The sealed design will be more expensive: higher cost of consumables, the more frequent call scavengers. The cost of equipping the well with a filter bottom less, but you should consider the risk of contamination of the adjacent territory, in addition, if the liquid will go into the soil, can cause problems with the pumping of solid waste using vacuum technology.
For the equipment of the pit to clear the space and dig a pit of a rectangular shape. Dimensions of the pit depend on the size of family and frequency of visits to garden. The soil at the bottom thoroughly tamped.
The pit can be built of different materials: brick, plastic, concrete.
In order to put the pit out of brick on the bottom of the prepared hole covered by a sand layer with a thickness of 10-15 centimeters, and is filled with concrete. It is desirable to use a reinforcement and a filler, the better the gravel. After the base concrete hardens, the wall lay brick masonry and plaster. In order to better sealing design, it can be treated with bitumen mastic. The walls of the structure must be 10 cm above ground level.
Can be equipped with a sealed pit in a pit by placing a metal or plastic container. The top of this tank completely fails. In order for the soil not replaced the plastic container, it is secured with weights.
You can build the pit using concrete rings. Because they are difficult to set accurately, such a hole cannot be considered completely sealed. The trench in this case, dig the size of the ring. After installing the first ring, start opposed to undermine its Foundation so that the ring gradually sank under its own weight. When the top forms a space for the second ring, and install it. This establishes the required number of rings must protrude above the soil at 10 cm. After installing the last ring of the bottom of the pit poured a layer of sand and pour concrete.
For the construction of monolithic concrete pits, after completion of the excavation to the bottom of the poured sand, reinforced with visits to the sides and concreted. After hardening install formwork for the walls and pour them with concrete. After removal of the formwork defects in the concrete close up of cement-sand mortar.
Top pit necessarily be covered. Overlapping can be performed, putting on top of the pit with logs, cover the top with roofing felt or polyethylene and concreted or covered with soil, slag, or gravel. Be sure to equip the door through which sewage will be pumped and leave a hole for ventilation pipe.
After construction of the pit beside her pour the Foundation of the appropriate size and erect lavatories.
The appearance and arrangement of building toilets in the country not depend on the method of waste disposal. You can build a house yourself or use the services of specialists for its construction. There are plastic and wooden houses, ready for installation.
If you decided to take up construction of toilet for cottages with his own hands, there is a huge amount of materials for building: brick, foam, timber, boards, plywood, or plastic. When selecting materials and equipment booths must adhere to such rules: the house must be stable and warm, have holes for ventilation.
For example, consider the construction of wooden toilet for cottages. As the main material used is wood (boards, beams or paneling). You will also need roofing felt, slate (or other roofing material), screws.
A frame of timber fixed on a prepared Foundation. Between the frame and Foundation are laid roofing felt for waterproofing. It is desirable to cover the primer mixture of timber and paint, this will protect it from rotting. Thus treated timber must be attached by a wooden cross-beams for receiving desired frame size.
Next install racks for doors and beams for the arrangement of the roof. Roof beams are fixed so as a little beyond the edge of the structure. If you plan to shed roof, the emphasis is on the rear part of the house. On the transverse rails of the roof lay roofing felt, then slate.
We have the frame for the podium with the seat. The frame is sheathed with clapboard and carefully polished.
External and internal finishing is executed using any material at hand, in our case, the lining or simple wooden planks. Complete construction can install a door made of planks.
Interesting ideas for the construction of toilets in the country you can learn by watching the following video:
For any toilet mandatory ventilation.
Should make ventilation of the sump. To do this, a hole left for ventilation, insert a plastic sewer pipe with a length of 2.5—3 m (the length of the pipe is 20 centimeters greater than the height of the toilet). Pipe with clamps fixed on the rear wall of the toilet cubicles. Top be sure to set protection against an atmospheric precipitation.
Separately equip the ventilation of the booth. For this we can restrict the depth of the two holes: one should be from below and the second (through which will stretch out the air from the toilet) — top.
Cleaning of toilets in the country are mainly produced mechanically, septic system when waste is pumped through a machine provided for the hatch or submitted manually (in the case of powders-rest rooms or toilets).
Recent gains in the popularity of biological clearing of cesspools. In a pit or container for sewage add a special biologically active agent for toilet at the cottage. Developing, bacteria break down waste and partially eliminate the odor.