The fence can be constructed from different materials and by several techniques, but the stone fence is the most reliable. In addition, stone makes the design attractive. Most often in the construction of fences using natural material, but in recent years, gaining popularity and artificial substitutes.
What are the advantages of stone fences:
- fire safety,
- immunity to any precipitation and natural phenomena,
- no rotting, corrosion, oxidation, etc.,
- the ability to match the desired shade,
- the availability of the material,
The beginner in the construction business may seem to make, one of them will be able only a professional. Actually it is not, and will cope with the task almost any. Before you start working, you need to determine the type of the future fence. During the construction of the fence is used:
- Pebbles or large gravel. Available materials, but due to the small size of the whole process is very time consuming.
- Sandstone. Excellent transfers both low and high temperatures. It is also noted the material’s resistance to moisture
- The boulders and cobbles. One of the cheapest and readily available materials. In some areas, the stones can simply be found in nature and just to crush to the desired size.
- Limestone. The material is easy to process, but due to the natural porosity is not resistant to moisture. Below the limestone lasts longer, it can be covered with a special chemical composition (insulator).
- Dolomite. Found in nature in the mountains, so its price is not the lowest. However, dolomite is very durable and attractive in appearance, this explains its high popularity in the construction of fences.
- Artificial stone. Very successfully competes with natural. Huge selection of colors and patterns makes this material very popular.
- Quarry stone. Universal tool for finishing the fence, which has proved to be excellent. Is separate pieces of large stones and that its extraordinary form was the reason for the wide use.
So is the goal to build a stone fence, is to find out what it takes. First thing you need to worry about the materials. Assume that the stone has already been purchased, then left to get a mixer or tank for mixing cement mortar. For this mixture you will need gravel and sand, the volume of which depends on the length and height of the fence. Cement is better to choose with the marking 300, as it is better suited for such construction. By the way, the dosage of the components will need a shovel (shovels), and for the laying of ready mix trowel.
Next be sure to need boards and nails for the erection of formwork and reinforcement to make the structure good rigidity. If the fence is high, it will take a welder. With his help, steel rods can be lengthened at the desired size. Definitely worth to buy a pipe with diameter 50 – 80 mm. will be «heart» future posts.
For marking work required roulette small stakes and regular twine. Once the intake is determined, you can move on to the next stage.
You must first dig a trench the width and length of a fence of stone. In this case, it may be useful to shovel, or even a scrap. The depth of the trench depends on the specific conditions, but more than 700 mm to do it does not make sense. The soil from the pit do not discard, as will subsequently have to fill the edges of the Foundation.
The next step will be nailing the boards to the desired configuration. Simultaneously, the rods are welded on the same form, and laid in the trench. Around the perimeter need to drive stakes, and the top 1.5 – 2.0 m nailed to the cross beam. This is to ensure that when filling Board not parted in the side.
In the resulting design, you can pour the concrete mixture. If the experience in mixing it not, here a small user manual. You should always consider the amount of binder and then add the other ingredients. So, one part of cement it should be two parts sand and four parts gravel. All ingredients are filled into the mixer and mixed.
When the mixture is ready, it can be drained into a container and spread around the perimeter fence buckets. But you can do smarter and pour the mixture directly into the formwork with the help of the gutter. Each new batch suggests the movement of the mixer!
Pre-mark the dots for pillars and each of them welded to the valve pipe. The height of the best to do with the stock!
After completion of all concrete works construction need to be left alone for 15 – 20 days. For the best and uniform curing of the casing is placed on top of the insulator (film). Otherwise, the upper part of the basement will dry quickly, and the strength of concrete will be worse.
Inexperienced builders at this stage can prevent one fatal error. Bay Foundation flush with the ground (or even below), then no end of problems with water. Rain, melted snow, etc. will accumulate along the fence, thereby eroding the soil and contributing to the formation of slime and mold. Better to make the Foundation slightly above ground level, and subsequently to decorate the concrete or to fill a thin layer of soil (ornamental stone).
The construction of the pillars begins with measuring the distance between them. If it is different, it can be a little pull or stretch the pipe with a rope. Columns of stone for the fence being made a little wider spans that visually divides the entire wall section.
Next is shuttering in the form of a square with the desired width of the column. The height of the formwork should not exceed 40 – 50 cm When it’s done is spread a layer of peeled stones and this is done as close (parallel) to the plane of the boards! After that all cavities are filled in a moderately thick solution. By the way, the solution for the fence of stone is done like this: 1 part cement, 1.7 parts of gravel and sand! Important to make sure that all the cracks between the stones were filled with a mixture of binder, but the solution is not flowed on the post.
Thus, this procedure should be done on each column and leave to harden for a day or two. With the formwork for the pillars stone fence, too it is possible to cheat a little. To collect a new square, it is possible for the bottom row just to nail another one and so on! Gradually the height of the columns reaches the desired level, and then you can start the walls!
Construction walls can be done in different ways. Experienced builders simply pull bichescu, which becomes a reference point for height and deviation of the fence. They laid one layer of stones around the perimeter of the fence, after which all voids filled with mortar. A day laid out the second layer, etc. But in this case the risk of getting too rough wall, so it is better to use formwork.
Formwork made similar posts, but here do not have the stones to firmly attach to the boards. Some irregularities valid, they give the fence the asymmetry. After laying the first layer of stones covered with mortar and left for a day or two.
To the spans of the fence the same height, closer to the end of their need to measure with a tape measure. By varying the size of the stones, you can come to a common level the whole wall. After completion of the installation and dismantling of formwork it is important to carry out jointing, otherwise the mixture will solidify much.
After filling you need to wait about 5 hours and start pointing. First rough brush cleaned all residue, then it goes on a special tool – scraper. It is a metal rectangle with a projection equal to the desired width of the seam.
Stage grouting is quite simple, but it is important to maintain accuracy when the penetration tool. Experienced builders recommend after pointing to hold the seams and rocks with hydrochloric acid (30 %).
The same seam significantly improves the appearance of the fence and you can better handle it.
A fence made of natural stone is ready, the seams embroidered, formwork removed. But at this stage the design still looks unfinished! The devil is in the details that ennoble the rough shape of the material and give the wall a well-groomed appearance.
First, each post must be set so-called cap. They are sold in stores or made to order in blacksmith’s workshop.
Second, the sutures of the pillars can be offset with some kind of waterproof paint that visually divide the fence on the stairs.
To make the fence is not easy, but like classic said, it would wish! This material demonstrates that all phases of construction will be able to perform even far from manual labor people. Quite a few things and you can start building!
If the cost of the construction of stone walls too high, the material can find themselves, and the pouring of the Foundation to do with the help of friends! Important not to rush things and then you will have the most gorgeous fence on the street!