Encyclopedia of plants

How to grow spruce: planting and care, an overview of modes of reproduction

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Spruce in landscape design

To begin with we suggest you to watch the video — maybe you’ll find the answers to your questions in it:

To begin with, what variety of spruce is an excellent material for the formation of the style of a suburban area, that is why when choosing planting material should pay attention to the coniferous varieties.

Thick beautiful crown, a form which can be adjusted depending on the purpose, high and low spruce trees successfully used for making such compositions as:

  • rockeries;
  • hedges;
  • topiary;
  • single and group planting.

The combination of low conifers neatly-formed crowns, stone and decor from natural materials suitable for decoration of the territory and in the regular and natural style, because rockeries with spruce as a key element very popular.

Rockery with tree

Rockeries is a good and because it requires small investment for maximum aesthetic effect: almost all plants can be grown with your own hands, and find directly into a garden, bring your own river Bank or from the quarry

Live spruce fence – great fencing item that can be planted around the perimeter or between two different functional areas. Tall, densely planted trees will replace the fence, and decorative plants adorn the area and create a natural atmosphere.

Live spruce fence

In this case low, but close to each other planted trees are more decorative than functional load – they separate rockery area from the rest of the

Having in the country a small tree, you can be trained in the art of topiary – to create a lush spruce crown geometric shape, spiral or other simple three-dimensional object. Here is just one of the useful properties of conifers – slow growth (3-5 cm per year).

Topiary in the country

To begin comprehension of the topiary better with the less complex shapes – a cube, pyramid or sphere, and then move on to more complex configurations, for example, spirals

On the background of brick and wooden buildings and fences look beautiful, the group rarely planted fir trees of different heights, and a single tall tree can become a centre of resort or the perfect background-a partner for the gazebo (benches, garden decor).

Christmas tree

A specially planted spruce to celebrate the New year and Christmas in nature. A holiday in the great outdoors, and more fun banal family meal, and the process of decorating trees with garlands and toys – a real magical ritual that children will remember for a lifetime

Methods of acquisition or reproduction of spruce

If you chose the spruce as one of the plants for decoration of your site and even decided on the variety, need to think about where you take it. The easiest way is to buy a sapling in the nursery, but many do not search for easy ways and try to grow the trees yourself, from seed or sprigs. There are those who are considered the most hardy and strong instances, taken in their natural environment, that is dug in the woods.

Consider the nuances of each method in more detail and consider the features of breeding spruce.

Purchase of seedling in the nursery

If you already have a ready design project, but to implement it only lacks a few conifers, you can quickly buy seedlings in the nursery. This is true in the case if you need some rare, exotic strain that difficult or long to grow your own.

Seedlings of coniferous and other plants are sold in pots of various sizes, depending on the size of the plant. Planting the tree in soil, you must fully keep the ball «native soil», so tree will take root better and faster.

Spruce from the nursery

Choosing spruce in the nursery, conditions for the main factors of cultivation, which relate to the size of the adult tree, its hardiness and stamina, lighting conditions, mode of irrigation etc.

Buying the seedling, pay attention to its viability, which is easily identified by the following features:

  • fresh, shiny, not partially crumbled needles;
  • tender shoots of growth at the tips of the branches;
  • natural, non-deformed shape of branches and trunk;
  • needles are not affected rusty or whitish bloom;
  • when you half-press the twigs bend and don’t break.

Too little pot suggests that spruce dug specifically for sale and violated its root system.

Growing trees from seed

If you have enough time for gardening, you can grow different varieties of spruce from seeds. The best are the types that grow in your region. The time of ripening of the cones depends on the climate, but for breeding it is recommended to harvest in late autumn.

The seeds of spruce

Cones stored in a cool dry place, protected from wind and direct sunlight. About 2.5-3 months before planting take out the seeds (also called nuts) and subjected to stratification to increase germination

To prepare the seedlings, the seeds can withstand a day in clean water, after half an hour soak in a weak (0.5 percent) solution of manganese. Then dipped in the tank filled with damp sand, and stored until sowing in the cold – snow or fridge.

Planting in sawdust

Sowing is carried out in mid-April, and it is better to use a greenhouse with sawdust. Sandy loam soil covered with a thin layer (1.5-2 cm) of sawdust on it and laid the seeds, cover the same layer of coniferous sawdust – to create conditions close to natural, but more comfortable for growing

If you decided to plant seeds in the open ground, will have to arrange additional protection. It may become a frame of rods to protect from the sharp wind, and a layer of cotton fabric.

In August a kind of protection is removed, and instead, make a cover from a thick layer of dry leaves. Instead of open ground sometimes use the boxes, but growing conditions remain the same.


2, at least 3 years, the seedlings planted in the ground with an interval of 40-50 cm Before planting is too long or damaged roots should be removed, and remaining for a short time placed in a solution of humus

You will need a special regime of care: moderately moist soil (in heat – additional watering) and 3-time summer feeding. As a fertilizer suitable mullein or 0.1 percent solution gidropony diluted with water.

Dorost seedlings lasts another 3-4 years. All the time they need to rake, fertilize, water about 1 time a week. Mandatory fertilizer produce in the spring, before the buds swell. Suitable mineral nutrient solution:

  • manure – 450-500 g;
  • potassium nitrate – 10-15 g;
  • superphosphate is 25-30 g.

All mix thoroughly, distribute into the soil around plants, gently dig in at a shallow depth (8-10 cm) and watered to let the fertilizer absorb into the soil.

Planting seedlings

In 6-7 years you will get Christmas trees ready for planting in a permanent place. They, as usual, planted in the early spring, keeping the root clod

How to grow a tree from a branch (cutting)

For breeding of ornamental species using cuttings. Sprigs, cut in early spring (April) may become entrenched in the same year, later only for the next year. Many people prefer the August cuttings when the shoots finish growth and start to odrevesnevshie, however, there are winter method, which has been successfully used for all conifers, including for the firs.

We offer to your attention a master class on winter cuttings of spruce, which is the domestic rooting of seedlings with the possibility of further spring planting in the ground. Using garden shears or secateurs cut the required number of lateral branches. With the end of the segment must be preserved «heel» — a piece of last year’s wood. Great «heels» to be clipped, to avoid rotting of the wood.

Cutting needles

Needles from the lower part close to «heel», carefully cut away with a knife, as they are not needed and will hinder the development of future roots

Many coniferous trees can manage without additional boosters, but the spruce capricious in this regard and requires, especially in winter, special treatment.

Stimulating growth

Treated twigs placed in a vessel half full of a solution of Alpin (4-6 drops per 200 ml of water), and aged for 12-14 hours

Material for the storage of the cuttings will serve as sphagnum moss, which absorbs moisture.

Soaking the moss

While the shanks gain strength in the solution of Alpin, preparing them for protective «shirt» — soak the dry sphagnum moss in clean water

Take the film and lay it the length of the tape on the table. Distributed along the tape impregnated with a moisture sphagnum – he will play the role of substrate for the cultivation of spruce cuttings.

Laying cuttings

The cuttings spread on the prepared base in the following order: first, every twig dip in a stimulating powder (for example, «Kornevin»), then the lower part is placed on the tape with the moss

Fold the tape in half so that the roots were pressed against the sphagnum moss and wrapped in plastic, and the tops of the cuttings – free.

Slide film

Roll film distributed cuttings gently into the roll that he was quite tight, but not cramped for the development of roots

He drew up a bunch in this form will be stored softwood cuttings in spring before planting in the ground. That the film is not untwisted, it is necessary to tie with twine or rubber band to pull.

Storing cuttings

Storage cuttings should be light and cool – storage room or veranda. If the country of wooden casement Windows, the cuttings can be placed between the panes or hung on the side, hiding from direct sunlight

Winter cuttings is good because the period of the spring planting already have small roots.

Planting cuttings

Rooted sprigs in April can be planted in the garden – not in a permanent place, and in a pot or box for growing. Ideal – well lit, ventilated greenhouse

In two years the seedlings will eventually take root and get stronger, then you can plant them in open ground to a permanent place of growth.

Transplanting forest trees

Quest for the tree in the forest ends well, if you remember a few simple rules:

  • dig the tree in the fall or spring when the soil is soft and wet;
  • if transplanted spruce in the summer, try to keep the root clod of earth;
  • for transplantation suitable instance is not higher than 1 m, with a maximum of 1.5 m; the larger the tree, the longer its roots and the higher the probability that you will damage them;
  • more lush and strong trees are growing on the edges of the forest, on the outskirts, away from dense thickets.

It is important to dig the tree. Around the trunk obamaite circle with the diameter of the circle formed by the lower branches. The depth of the groove is about half a meter. Carefully remove the tree from the soil, trying to save the earth on the roots. Put it on a piece of thick fabric, wrap and secure received a parcel in a wheelbarrow. Grab a couple of buckets «native» the soil that the Christmas tree has taken root faster in the new environment.

Spruce from the forest

Don’t forget one important thing – before digging be sure to indicate on branches the directions, the North and South to plant a tree, focusing on them

How to plant spruce?

Trees dug in the woods, and purchased seedlings have common rules of planting. There are two periods when fir better survives – early spring and late fall (before the cold). Some varieties, for example, a blue spruce, it is preferable to plant in the spring, so before you decide to plant a spruce, to specify the special features of landing the purchased varieties.

Select land most suitable for growing coniferous tree – lit by the sun or lightly shaded. Be careful about the drainage, because fir-trees growing in the swampy areas, poorly developed and lose their needles. Ideal for planting – Sunny patch of low-lying groundwater and fertile, humus-rich soil.

The spruce in the garden

Low ornamental spruce thrive inside floral arrangements and rock gardens, on well-lit rock gardens and rockeries

Planting of spruce the following:

  • Dig the hole to a depth of 50-60 cm, with a diameter of 60 cm at the surface and 30-35 cm in the lower part.
  • Arrange drainage of the 20-centimeter layer of a mixture of sand and crushed stone (or gravel).
  • Of excavated soil, sand, peat and compost (equal parts) prepare the soil mix. Add it to 100-150 g of NPK.
  • Partially fill the hole with soil mixture, wetted.
  • Put the root ball of the sapling into the hole.
  • Fill the free space remaining soil, align.

Hold peat mulching around the root collar, which is located at the level of the ground surface. Additional contributions of peat to warm the roots and retain moisture.

Mulching ate

Wood or peat mulch attractive and from an aesthetic point of view, moreover, making in the top layer of soil elements such as the oak bark prevents weeds

In addition to the important planting and care of tree, so consider the rules of pruning, watering and protection from disease.

Particular care for conifers

Water the spruce tree needs depending on the vegetation period, age and size, but in any case the soil around the tree should always be slightly damp. You can check this by squeezing in the hand a lump of earth. If it falls apart – watering time has come. Pour carefully, distributing water around the entire root ball. The average water consumption for a 2-foot trees – 10 litres 1 time per week.

The little seedlings require a special mode several times a day in small portions, as the roots are at the surface and quickly dries. In addition to irrigation do not forget about spraying after which spruce shines in the sun shiny clean needles.

Watering fir

If you do not reside in the country, choose for planting drought-resistant species such as blue spruce. In summer its enough to water once in two and a half weeks

Although the fir relates to slow-growing trees, from time to time she needs a trim. Preventive pruning is carried out once a year, in early spring, have not yet begun to grow new shoots. It is also called sanitary because remove mainly diseased or dry twigs. A slight thinning is beneficial for the whole tree – the sun’s rays penetrate deep into the canopy.

Ornamental trimming, on the contrary, carried out in mid-summer, after the growth of new shoots. Sometimes cut the tip if the required growth of the tree in width and not in height. The work is carried out with a sharp tool and place a saw cut is treated with a special solution of potassium permanganate and garden pitch.

Pruning spruce

For removal of thick dry branches used manual boom saw small twigs, garden shears, and for decorative cutting is a special garden shears

Often the firs and other coniferous species threatened by disease. The most common infection fungi leading to shattering of the crown, and even death. To deal with them need different methods.

The first step is to remove the damaged foliage and diseased branches, then saturate the soil Kornevina and process tree Immunotsitofit, Talisman, Zircon or any other drug that increases the immunity. Some diseases, such as root sponge or mottled rot treatment can not be, so the tree must be cut down, uproot the stump and surrounding soil thoroughly treated with a fungicide.

Schutte on eating

Signs of the disease Schutte – appearance on the branches of red spots, yellowed and crumbling needles. Schutte treated drugs Soon, Strobi, Falcon, Quadris, from may to the end of summer

And finally some advice from a professional about the selection and cultivation of different ornamental varieties.

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