Monolithic reinforced concrete structures werefirst used in Russia in 1802. The material used for the reinforcement of metal rods. The first structure, created using this technology became the Tsarskoye Selo palace.
Monolithic reinforced concrete structures are often used in the manufacture of products such as:
Reinforced concrete monolithic construction permitbuild buildings of any complexity and configuration. Moreover, this technology is not limited to factory standards. The designer has an incredibly wide field for creativity.
Of course, concrete has many advantages. He has great strength and quietly tolerate temperature extremes. Even water and frost can not harm him. Nevertheless, its tensile strength is at an extremely low level. Here comes into play fittings. It allows you to achieve high strength concrete IMC and reduce consumption.
In theory, as the material for reinforcementYou can use anything, even bamboo stalks. In practice applicable only two components: the composite and steel. In the first case - it is a whole range of materials. The basis products may lie basalt or carbon fibers. They are filled with polymer. Composite rebar is lightweight and does not give in to corrosion.
Steel is incomparably greater mechanical strength, besides its relatively low cost. In the process of reinforcement of concrete monolithic structures are used:
- smooth and grooved pins.
When creating complex construction projects at the heart of a monolithic concrete structure, metal mesh stacked.
Construction fittings may have a different shape. But sales often can be found only a core. Corrugated steel rods are often used in the construction of low-rise buildings. Low price and good adhesion to concrete, making them very attractive to potential buyers.
Steel rods used in creatingmonolithic concrete structures, in most cases, have a thickness of 12 to 16 millimeters. They perfectly protect the structure from tearing. Load generated during compression, compensates the concrete itself.
When the foundation is laid at home it is very importantobserve the rules of reinforcement of the monolithic concrete constructions. This will avoid a lot of defects and ensures a long service life of the object. According to the device of concrete monolithic structures are three types of foundations.
When it is applied reinforcement rodcorrugated fittings. The thickness of the reinforced concrete monolithic structure (foundation plates) depends on the number of floors and the material used in the construction. Standard rate of 15-30 centimeters.
A qualitative reinforcement of the foundation slab should have two layers. The upper and lower grilles are connected by struts. They form the right size gap.
The main difference between professional reinforcementreinforced concrete monolithic structures - is a complete cover-up of all the elements of the steel frame. In the tiled foundation reinforcement not welded to each other and fit through the wire.
The device of the monolithic concrete structure consists of a lattice, which is located in the upper part and takes on all the loads associated with stretching.
Welding the frame cells is not highlyIt recommended - it will reduce its strength. In this layer of concrete, steel separating elements and the ground should be not less than five centimeters. This will protect the metal from corrosion.
The reinforced concrete structure is very monolithicit is important to observe the correct distance between longitudinal bars. Edge figure - 400 millimeters. The transverse members are used when the chassis height exceeds 150 mm.
The distance between adjacent bars inreinforced concrete monolithic structure can not exceed 25 millimeters. Corners and connections further strengthened. This makes it possible to give greater strength foundation.
This technology is used in the construction ofbuilding on heaving soils. The optimum distance from the pile cap to the ground 100-200 mm. The gap creates a cushion of air, which has a positive effect on the whole house is insulated. Besides airbag prevents the formation of moisture on the ground floor.
When creating piles of used concrete grade M300 andhigher. Pre-drilled wells, which are embedded in roofing. He also serves as a formwork. The frame of the valve is lowered into each hole.
carcass construction consists of a corrugated longitudinal reinforcement. The cross-section rods of 12 to 14 mm. Fixing is carried out by means of wire. The minimum diameter of the pile - 250 mm.
These elements also require special rules reinforcement. In principle, they are similar to the rules of the creation of foundations, but there are some differences:
- The minimum diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement in the wall - 8mm, the maximum step length of 20 centimeters, the cross - 35 cm cross section transverse reinforcement of not less than 25% of the longitudinal section..
- Overlapping. The diameter of the valve is determined by the rated load. The minimum rate of eight millimeters. The distance between the bars is not greater than 20 mm.
- When you create a wall and ceilings allowed grid.
Standards for reinforcement of walls and ceilings are different because of the different degree of stress experienced by the reinforced concrete monolithic structures.
The strength of the entire reinforced concrete monolithic structure depends on concrete ties and accessories. It is necessary to transfer a part of the concrete steel reinforcement loading without loss of energy.
The main rule of reinforcement states thatreinforced concrete monolithic structure should not be breakdown in communication. The maximum permissible value of this parameter - 0.12 millimeters. Reliable connection of concrete and reinforcement - a guarantee of strength and durability of the building.
Design of reinforced concrete monolithicdesigns - is the creation of drawings on the basis of the collected survey data, available materials and building purpose. The carrier system of monolithic frame building up floors, foundations and pillars.
Designer task to calculate the loadall the elements and create an optimal project taking into account the peculiarities of soil and climatic conditions. The process of creating a reinforced concrete monolithic structures include:
- calculation of the construction of secondary beams;
- load calculation;
- payment ceilings on the limit states of first and second group.
To simplify the mathematical calculations using special software, for example, AutoCAD.
Upon allowance of monolithic designreinforced concrete structures - this is a snip. This is a set of rules and regulations, which contains standards of construction of residential and non-residential buildings in the territory of the Russian Federation. This document is updated dynamically depending on changes in construction technologies and approaches to security.
JV to the monolithic concrete constructionsdeveloped by leading scientists and engineers. SNiP 52-103-2007 regard IMC made on the basis of heavy concrete without rebar stress. According to this document distinguish these types of bearing elements,
- Colonia wall.
When using reinforced concrete monolithic structures may be designing floors in different constructive system of load-bearing elements.
When calculating the load-bearing elements of the parameters taken into account in accordance with building codes:
- Determination of force acting on the foundation, floors and other structural elements.
- The amplitude of the vibrations overlaps the upper floors.
- Calculation of form stability.
- Evaluation of resistance to the process of destruction and supporting capacity building.
This analysis allows us not only to define the parameters of concrete monolithic structures, but also to learn the life of the building.
Particular attention is paid to the design of reinforced concrete monolithic structure. This takes into account the following parameters:
- The possibility and rate of formation of cracks.
- Temperature-shrinkage deformation of concrete at hardening.
- IMC strength when removing the formwork.
If properly perform all the calculations, then created the product will last for decades, even in the most extreme conditions.
When the parameters are calculated bearing FMNused linear and non-linear stiffness of concrete elements. The latter is indicated for the continuous elastic bodies. The nonlinear stiffness is evaluated by cross section. It is very important to consider the possibility of formation of cracks and other deformations.
Each construction company is trying to achievethe best organization of the production process. For this purpose, construction regulations and international standards. Nevertheless, there is the established order of work, which ensures the highest quality of construction of the future:
- First, the calculation is carried out in four mainLoad types: permanent, temporary, short-term, special. For example, when you create a foundation for the units that create strong vibrations are used exclusively reinforced concrete monolithic structures.
- Geodetic intelligence, scheduling, and analysis of the overall performance.
- Definition points erected structure.
- Reinforcement structures. It is of two types: pre-tension and normal.
- Installation of the formwork. Decking allows you to create the desired shape for the future of the concrete structure. However, it can be classified by collapsible, material, purpose and structure.
- Concreting. There are four main ways of pouring concrete: a mixer tray directly on the casing; by concrete pump; through the chute; by means of a bell. To seal the concrete vibrator is used.
A very important part in the creation of a robust and reliablereinforced concrete monolithic structure plays curing. The thing is that this material may be frozen only under certain conditions. Usually full of concrete hardening takes about 15-28 days, if you do not use special cement grade. In order to prevent the evaporation of moisture in the hot season IMC watered.
This technology savesmaterials, because it is a company builder determines whether the use of certain elements of the structure. Installation of reinforced-concrete monolithic constructions goes directly to the construction site and consists of the following stages:
- On the ground material is placed for reinforcement. It is important to observe the regulations of the distance between the frame elements. This ensures uniformity of spreading concrete.
- Poured concrete. At this stage it is necessary to make sure that in the mixture were oily substance. They inhibit the binding of the concrete.
- If necessary, install additional equipment, accelerating drying.
Reinforced concrete monolithic construction allow you to create curves that makes the overall architecture of the building in times richer and richer.
Reinforced concrete monolithic construction permitto build a building in the shortest possible time, using modern concrete variety. An important step in the construction is the design. That's correct calculations allow you to create a solid construction with a long service life.
Reinforced concrete monolithic structuresThey are used in industrial construction and housing. The relatively low cost and durability make them indispensable in manufacturing plants and in the construction of multi-storey buildings.