Concrete and reinforced concrete

Types of concrete constructions

Reinforced concrete structures have become a realbreakthrough in the 19th century. Now almost all construction sites are being built with their help. At the moment, every day produced about two billion cubic meters of concrete in the world. Without them, can not be office buildings, high-rise buildings and industrial buildings.

Types of concrete constructions

Reinforced concrete structures allow you to quickly and with minimal financial cost to build the house of varying difficulty. At its core, concrete - it fittings, flooded cement mortar.

Features concrete ↑

Concrete has great strength. It allows you to build a building with a long service life. In addition, it is well withstands temperature extremes. Other useful features of this material rank:

  • frost,
  • high density
  • water resistance,
  • fire.

The compressive strength of concrete is 10-20 times morethan in tension. This parameter depends on the used sand and gravel. The main role is played by the quality of cement. That cement determines how strong will the composition.

Pouring concrete to protect reinforcement fromcorrosion. Structures made of this material are durable and resistant. Very much on the quality of the material affects the porosity, and it has relation to the total volume.

Important! Pores exist in any design. They appear as a result of evaporation of water, do not react with the cement. Very often large porosity is proof of the use of an insufficient number of cement in the mixture.

Density is the mass ratio ofconcrete to its volume. The higher this characteristic, the stronger will be the reinforced concrete structure. Due to the high density of concrete is highly resistant to compression.

Outside she can effectively transfer heat flux depending on the thickness of the reinforced concrete structure. The thermal conductivity of the concrete is 50 times less than that of steel, but it is much higher than that of brick.

The result of the low thermal conductivityreinforced concrete structures is their fire. Because of this, this material is also used in the regeneration of industrial buildings, where it is necessary to work with high temperatures.

Important! Reinforced concrete structures can withstand temperatures up to 1000 degrees for a long time. In this case the product does not break or crack.

An important characteristic of concrete is itsfrost. This material when saturated with water can withstand repeated temperature changes without any consequences. The percentage decrease in the minimum strength.

Types of concrete constructions

However, in the concrete, there is one significant drawback. Its tensile strength is extremely small. Therefore reinforced construction elements are added. For example, steel wire or rods.

The uniform has reinforced concrete structurehigh strength and good tensile strength. In addition, the technology for creating these products for the past 150 years has changed dramatically and continues to improve every day.

What reinforcements? ↑

Reinforcement allows you to create concrete structures for centuries.

Types of concrete constructions

The best example in this context to be strong and durable building floor. In the process of operation, tie on a metal base. Concrete floors can be the following types:

  • filler;
  • resting on the ground or plate;
  • screed with a layer of thermal insulation;
  • screed based on the plates overlap.

In addition to increasing the strength of the concrete structure, concrete reinforcement reduces costs. In operation, the materials can be used such as:

  • reinforcing cage,
  • fiberglass mesh,
  • a grid of wire rod,
  • welded wire mesh with a mesh,
  • Mesh polymers
  • fibrovolokno.

A wide selection makes it possible to choose the best option for creating high-quality and durable concrete structure.

Types of concrete constructions ↑

JBK can be classified in many ways. Over 150 years of continuous improvement was invented many methods of creating concrete structures using different technologies and concrete varieties.

Prefabricated reinforced concrete structures ↑

They are produced at the construction site of the preprepared elements. In this FFA are at the specialized enterprises, which have the necessary equipment and a high level of automation of labor. This makes it possible to achieve cost reduction and maximum productivity.

Types of concrete constructions

At the time, the creation of free fatty acids are extremely positiveimpact on universal industrialization and mechanization of the construction sector. Prefabricated reinforced concrete structures allows to erect buildings in any weather conditions. It is possible to carry out the building in winter and summer, in the rain, wind and heat.

However, prefabricated concrete structures have one major drawback, namely, high labor input. Moreover, the creation of joints has a large metal consumption and corresponding costs.

Monolithic concrete structures ↑

These products are created directly on theconstruction site by placing concrete in the formwork. As a result of reducing the cost of SWC can be achieved by reducing the cost of concrete, rebar, formwork materials and labor.

Zastroyschik itself determines the validity ofUse of a number of materials depending on the complexity of the object and its purpose. It allows you to create a more flexible cost estimates, assessing the actual production needs.

The main advantage of the monolithic concretestructures - their spatial integrity. If you take the professional terminology, this high static uncertainty. Due to this, monolithic structures have a low consumption of materials.

Types of concrete constructions

SWC is used both for the construction of typical and to create unique buildings. These products allow you to build objects using different types of formwork, including:

  • non-removable,
  • mobile,
  • panelboard,
  • block.

Also, when you create a monolithic concretedesigns used large blocks of spatial reinforcement and reinforced frames. Also, this technology makes it possible to establish a mechanized supply and laying of concrete. There are a number of structures that are created only by the SWC, these include:

  • pools,
  • foundations,
  • facilities with powerful dynamic loads.

In each of the above optionsthe use of monolithic reinforced concrete structures economically. In spite of the great advantages, this technology has its drawbacks, including:

  • time-consuming formwork;
  • Seasonal work;
  • construction time is largely dependent on the curing rate of the mixture.

Works with monolithic reinforced concrete structures is carried out only in the warm season. To speed up the process of special grades of cement are used to solidify extremely rapidly.

Collapsible monolithic concrete structures ↑

This is a complex of elements. According to this technology and reinforced concrete prefabricated fit together.

Types of concrete constructions

It plays a major role in the quality of the technologyClutch prefabricated monolithic. To achieve the desired result prefabs may have different shape and size. In the complexes of this kind can be used Free of tension reinforcement and prestressing. It all depends on the particular situation and purpose of the object.

If the surface of the prefabricated reinforced concrete monolithicstructures has a high level of roughness, it is possible to dispense with the dowels. In places where the prefabricated elements are in contact with concrete, provides release of the transverse reinforcement. Anchoring fit into a monolithic concrete further.

Important! Precast concrete in these structures is a formwork for monolithic component.

Collapsible monolithic concrete structures combine the advantages of both previous types. They are very economical and allow us to construct a building by means of modern methods of quickly and accurately.

Important! Monolithic concrete ensures high spatial rigidity. This reduces material consumption.

The monolithic elements are widely used light and cellular concrete. You can use artificial porous aggregates. Because of what is significantly reduced the proportion of the construction.

Guidelines for creating reliable concrete constructions ↑

Types of concrete constructions

In the process, all the construction regulations must be observedand construction standards. Some organizations additionally guided by international standards, to obtain an important competitive advantage. Nevertheless, there is a set of mandatory rules that must be followed when creating concrete slabs:

  1. Grid or framework should not create obstacles to the uniform distribution concrete.
  2. First, the site fits the material for the reinforcement and only after this is done filling.
  3. It is necessary to avoid contamination of the concrete structure of oil substances. They prevent the formation of a strong link between the concrete and the frame.
  4. To protect against corrosion Reinforced Concrete, concrete should completely hide the reinforcement elements.

Mesh reinforcement is used when the foundation and floor - a unified system of fixing the house. A similar technology is used in the construction on soil with a low degree of reliability.

Results ↑

In modern construction are used all kinds ofreinforced concrete structures, depending on their specific advantages. The main thing - is compliance with all building regulations and standards, which guarantee the safety and durability of construction.

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