- Construction cesspool
- The construction of the upper part of the toilet
- Ventilation toilet at the cottage
Toilet more often becomes the first building,erected in the country. The main reason for this is that defecate in the street under the bushes protected unpleasant and uncomfortable. You can build a toilet in the country with their own hands or use the services of specialists.
If resources permit, you can build a sewer system with pit latrine. In this case, it is possible to equip a conventional toilet with toilet for questioning.
If your site is not possible to construct a complete sewerage system, in this case, you can select one of the following types of toilets to testify.
Pit latrines - This is the easiest and most common way to solve this problem on their summer cottage. This suite is equipped with a stationary in a separate house-booth.
Disadvantages of this design in considerable financial costs of construction and maintenance (regular cleaning using assenizatorskaya equipment).
Poudre-closet - This kind of arrangement of the toilet room wasIt circulated in the Soviet past, and was used in shallow groundwater (less than 2.5 meters). Poudre-closet can be fitted in the toilet room or dwelling in a separate house. To collect waste used in such lavatory metal or plastic container. It got its name from the fact that every time you use to reduce the characteristic smell of the contents of containers for waste need to sprinkle sawdust, sand or peat - "powder". Waste containers should be emptied regularly - using vacuum trucks or manually. Waste, interspersed with peat, are often used in compost pits.
The disadvantages of this type of toilet in the presence of an unpleasant smell, and the need to store a sufficient amount of material for the powder.
In place of the powders-closet in our time we came toilets. In biotoilets impurities are also going tospecial tank where neutralize various ways. Depending on the method of processing sewage composting toilets are liquid, electrical or peat.
- Liquid toilet to give mobile enougheasy to use, they can be transported in a car. Advantageously, this type of composting toilets installed in the house. They consist of two parts: the upper, with a tank for flushing, seat and pomp, and the bottom, which is a reservoir for waste collection. The tank is filled a special composition, which breaks down the waste and partly neutralize odor.
Disadvantages of liquid composting toilets: they require large amounts of water and, because of the small tonnage, frequent emptying. Moreover, the liquid waste is to neutralize toxic and itself has an unpleasant odor.
- Electric toilets appeared to testifyrecently. They are stationary and require connection to the mains, so they equip the premises of the residential villas. The appearance of the toilet like a normal toilet. The difference lies only in the structure beneath the floor - there is a tank divided into two parts. In one collected liquid waste, which is then displayed via the drainage system in the sump or in the ground. In another part of the tank is collected and dried solid excrement and toilet paper. When emptying of the toilet, the dried contents can be added to a compost pit.
Disadvantages of electric dry closet:it requires a specially equipped room (when its construction is necessary to provide a place for waste collectors, drainage systems and accessories collections for cleaning). It should also be equipped with special exhaust ventilation.
- Peat biotoilets (also called Finnish orcompost) are also new for our market. Positioning they need to be in a specially equipped room in a residential area or in a separate house. Their work consists in the fact that after the use of excrement backfilled portion milled peat. Peat absorbs liquid waste fraction, which significantly increases the evaporation of the liquid through the ventilation system. In the peat mass is actively going kompostizatsiya solid waste. Due to the large volume of the collection, a toilet for the villas do not need to be emptied often. Its contents can be poured into a compost pit.
To work around the problem with a toilet can be bought bucket-toilet garden. Externally, this design does not differ much fromnormal bucket with a tight lid. For its installation does not require special equipment rooms, but we must remember that the characteristic smell is present in the room. After use, the contents of the bucket-toilet sprinkle peat, sawdust, or even paper in order to reduce the spread of odor, and densely covered with an airtight lid. When filling the contents of the bucket poured into the cesspool. Using the toilet-pails for garden can be viewed only as a temporary measure, to the toilet of another type of equipment.
If you chose to pit latrines, try to build it with his own hands. It will not require you costly, but some construction skills will not prevent.
First you need to choose the right place for the future of the bathroom:
- To avoid contamination of drinkingwater, a toilet should be placed no closer than 25 to 30 meters from wells, boreholes and water reservoirs. If the site has a natural inclination, a toilet at the cottage is placed below the water sources. Cesspools do not recommend to equip, if the depth of the groundwater is higher than 2.5 meters.
- Distance from the accommodation to the toilet should be at least 12 meters.
- When choosing a site should take into account wind rose, the smell did not extend to the side of the house.
When choosing a place for the toilet in the country, do not forget to provide access for assenizatorskaya machine. Sleeve length for pumping is 6-7 meters, 3 of which will be in the pit.
After site selection, decide the type of latrinepit: a filter bottom or sealed. Sealed design will cost more: the higher the cost of supplies, more frequent call scavengers. The cost of equipping the well with a filter bottom less, but should take into account the risk of contamination of the surrounding area, in addition, if the liquid will go into the ground, there can be problems with the pumping of solid waste using assenizatorskaya technology.
For pit equipment needed to clear the place and dig a rectangular pit. The dimensions of the pit depends on the size and frequency of visits to the family garden. The soil at the bottom thoroughly tamped.
The pit can be built from different materials: bricks, plastic, concrete.
In order to put a hole in a brick to the bottomprepared pit poured sand layer thickness of 10-15 centimeters, and the concrete is poured. It is desirable to use a reinforcing filler and, better rubble. After the concrete hardens the foundation, walls spread the brick masonry and plaster. In order to better seal the structure, it can be processed bitumen mastic. Wall structure must be 10 cm above the ground level.
You can equip a sealed pit, placing inpit metal or plastic container. The top of the tank is completely cut off. To the ground are not replaced plastic container, it is fixed by means of weighting.
You can construct a hole using concrete rings. Because they are difficult to set exactly a pit can not be considered completely sealed. Pit dug in this case the size of the ring. After the installation of the first ring, start to undermine its basis, the ring is gradually sinking under its own weight. When a space is formed on top of the second ring and mounted. This sets the required number of rings, the latter shall act on the ground 10 centimeters. After installing the last ring bottom of the pit poured a layer of sand and poured concrete.
For the construction of monolithic concrete pit, afterpreparation of the pit at the bottom of the sand is poured, reinforced with a stop at the side and concreted. After solidification set formwork for walls and pour them with concrete. After removal of the formwork defects in concrete close up cement-sand mortar.
Top cesspool necessarily covered. The overlap can be made by putting a log on top of the pit, the top cover with roofing material or polyethylene and concreted or sprinkle soil, slag or gravel. Be sure Equips hatch, through which sewage will be pumped out, and leave a hole for the vent pipe.
After the arrangement of the pit with her pour the foundation of the appropriate size and erect a house dressing.
The appearance and arrangement of the toilet building at the cottageIt is independent of the waste. You can build a house on their own or use the services of experts for its construction. On sale is plastic and wooden houses, ready for installation.
If you decide to go the toilet buildingto give your hands, then at your disposal a wealth of material for the building: brick, foam concrete, timber, boards, plywood or plastic. should adhere to such rules for selection of materials and equipment lockers: House must be stable and warm, have holes for ventilation.
For example, consider the construction of a woodentoilet for questioning. The basic material used wood (planks, beams and paneling). Also needed roofing, slate (or other roofing material), self-tapping screws.
The frame of the timber is fixed on the preparedfoundation. Between the frame and lay the foundation for waterproofing roofing material. It is advisable to cover the timber with a mixture of primer and paint, it will protect it from rotting. The thus-treated timber should seal between a wooden cross members to obtain the desired size of the frame.
Next, set the rack doors and beams forarrangement of the roof. Roof beams fastened so that they are slightly favored a design edge. If you plan to pent roof slope it is on the back of the house. On the roof crossbars laid roofing material, and then the slate.
Separately it is going to frame for the podium with a seat. The frame is sheathed clapboard and carefully polished.
Exterior and interior finishing is performed using any available material, in our case - lining or conventional boards. Complete construction of the installation of doors, made from planks.
Interesting ideas for the construction of toilets in the country can be found by viewing the following video:
For any toilet is obligatory presence of ventilation.
It is necessary to make the ventilation of the sump. To do this, the hole left for ventilation, insert a plastic sewer pipe length of 2.5-3 m (the length of the pipe must be 20 centimeters higher than the height of the toilet). The pipe with clamps attached to the rear of the toilet cubicles. Top necessarily set the protection from atmospheric precipitation.
Separately equip ventilated cabins. To do this, we can confine ourselves cutting through the two holes: one must be from the bottom, while the second (and through which air is drawn out of the closet) - the top.
Cleaning toilets in the country is mainly producedmechanically, when the waste is pumped through the machine assenizatorskaya hatch provided or submitted by hand (in the case of powders, dry closet or closet).
Recently gaining popularityseptic tank cleaning. The pit or container for impurities added to a special biologically active agent to the toilet at the cottage. Developing, bacteria convert waste and partially eliminate the odor.